William Barnes

William Barnes

William Barnes was born in London on 20th May, 1879. His father was a foreman at Victoria Dock and his mother had a coffee shop in Silvertown.

Barnes played for Thames Iron Works in the 1895-1896 season. The 17 year old scored the only goal in the deciding game of the West Ham Charity Cup.

In 1899 he signed for Sheffield United. The team had recently won the FA Cup and the First Division title and included players such as William Foulke, Ernest Needham, Walter Bennett and George Hedley.

Barnes struggled to get into the first-team. Sheffield United played Southampton in the 1902 FA Cup Final. Sheffield took an early lead but Southampton scored a controversial equalizer and the game was drawn 1-1. C. B. Fry wrote in the Southern Echo: "The outstanding feature of the match was the grand goalkeeping of Foulke. he made a number of good saves, and on two or three occasions cleared the ball from what appeared impossible positions. Once, near the end, from a corner, he effected an absolute miracle with four or five men right on to him."

William Foulke was furious that the equalizing goal had been given after the game he went searching for the referee. The linesman, J. T. Howcroft, described how Frederick Wall, secretary of the Football Association, tried to placate the goalkeeper: "Foulke was exasperated by the goal and claimed it was in his birthday suit outside the dressing room, and I saw F. J. Wall, secretary of the FA, pleading with him to rejoin his colleagues. But Bill was out for blood, and I shouted to Mr. Kirkham to lock his cubicle door. He didn't need telling twice. But what a sight! The thing I'll never forget is Foulke, so tremendous in size, striding along the corridor, without a stitch of clothing."

Walter Bennett was injured and could not take part in the replay. He was replaced by the William Barnes on the wing. The game was only two minutes old when a massive clearing kick by William Foulke reached Jack Hedley and Sheffield United took an early lead. Led by the outstanding Ernest Needham, Sheffield dominated play but Albert Brown managed to score a equalizer. Southampton began to apply pressure but according to the Athletic News, "Foulke was invincible". With ten minutes to go, Needham took a shot that the Southampton goalkeeper, John Robinson, could only block, and Barnes was able to hit the ball into the unguarded net. Sheffield won 2-1 and Barnes won a cup-winners' medal.

After scoring six goals in 23 games for Sheffield United before Barnes joined West Ham United at the beginning of the 1902-3 season. Barnes scored in his debut against Reading. Barnes scored only three more goals that season. However, he still ended up the second highest scorer behind Billy Grassam who scored 19 that year.

The following year Barnes managed only one goal in 25 games. In 1904 Barnes moved to Luton Town. Later he played for Queens Park Rangers. After retiring from playing Barnes was a coach with the Spanish club Bilbao.

William Barnes, was the brother of Alfred Barnes, the Labour Party MP for East Ham who served in the government of Clement Attlee as Minister of Transport (1945-51).

William Barnes died in 1962.

Ernest Barnes

Ernest William Barnes was the eldest of four sons of John Starkie Barnes and Jane Elizabeth Kerry, both elementary school head-teachers. In 1883 Barnes' father was appointed Inspector of Schools in Birmingham, a position that he occupied throughout the rest of his working life. Barnes was educated at King Edward's School, Birmingham and in 1893 went up to Cambridge as a Scholar of Trinity College. He was bracketed Second Wrangler in 1896 and was placed in the first division of the first class in Part II of the Mathematical Tripos in 1897 . In the following year he was awarded the first Smith's Prize and was duly elected to a Trinity Fellowship. He was appointed a lecturer in mathematics in 1902 , junior dean in 1906 - 08 and a tutor in 1908 . He graduated Sc.D. of the University of Cambridge in 1907 and was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1909 .

In the same year he became a lecturer in mathematics, Barnes was ordained deacon by the Bishop of London and from 1906 to 1908 was Junior Dean of Trinity. In 1915 , Barnes left Cambridge, and his career as a professional mathematician, upon his appointment as Master of the Temple in London. This was followed in 1918 to a Canonry of Westminster and finally, in 1924 , to the Bishopric of Birmingham, an office he held until 1952 when he had to retire on account of ill-health. He died at his home in Sussex at the age of 79 , survived by his wife and two sons.

Barnes' episcopate was marked by a series of controversies stemming from his outspoken views and, rather surprisingly for someone who held such high office in the Church, often unorthodox religious beliefs. In 1940 he lost a libel case in which he had attacked the Cement Makers' Federation for allegedly holding up the supply of cement, for their own profit, at a time of great national need in the construction of air-raid shelters. Undaunted by this set-back, Barnes returned to his accusations on the cement ring in a speech he delivered in the House of Lords the following year, in which he claimed that powerful business concerns were using libel and slander action to suppress criticism. As a theological author, Barnes' book in 1947 , entitled The Rise of Christianity, aroused such fierce opposition and criticism from more orthodox members of the Church, that it was strongly suggested he should renounce his episcopal office, a hint which Barnes did not take.

In all, Barnes wrote 29 mathematical papers during the years 1897 - 1910 . His early work was concerned with various aspects of the gamma function, including generalisations of this function given by the so-called Barnes G G G -function, which satisfies the equation

William Barnes - History

Genealogy of the Barnes Family
(version January 13, 2013)
Please email corrections to Mike Clark

    Thomas Barnes (c.1623-1691/93) was born in England and as a boy sailed to America, where the first mention of him is in the New Haven Colony of Connecticut in 1643 or 1644 when he came of age and was admitted to the colony. If he was 21-years old when the colony accepted him, he would have been born about 1623. Then in June 1649 he received a parcel of land - "The meddow and second devission of upland is granted to John Brocket and Thomas Barnes." Many genealogies freely confuse this Thomas Barnes (of New Haven County) with a different Thomas Barnes, of Farmington township in adjacent Hartford County, whose wife Mary was hanged as a witch in 1663. Because both men immigrated from England, probably in the 1630s, and lived in colonial Connecticut in adjacent counties, it is quite difficult to keep the facts concerning them separate, but they are indeed unrelated individuals. To add to this confusion, there were two other Thomas Barnes in the nearby Massachusetts Colony who were alive at about the same time (Trescott, 1907, p. 4-5).

Thomas Barnes of New Haven married a woman named Elizabeth about 1647 and lived with her there until about 1660 or 1665, afterwhich they moved to North Haven, then later to that part of Middletown known as Middlefield, where he died in either 1691 or 1693. He left a will, dated Feb. 25, 1683, in which he names his children. Various online genealogies give his birthplace as Barking, Essex, name his parents, and give the surname of his wife, but as none provide any documentation, these claims are suspect.

John Barnes (b. 1648) is mentioned in his father's will. Elizabeth Barnes (b. 1650) is mentioned in her father's will. Thomas Barnes (1653-1712) is mentioned in his father's will. Mercy Barnes (b. 1655) is mentioned in her father's will. Abigail Barnes (1656/57-1723) is mentioned in her father's will. Daniel Barnes (1659-c.1740) is mentioned in his father's will. Martha Barnes (b. 1661) is mentioned in her father's will. Maibee (Maybe) Barnes (1663-1749) is mentioned in his father's will. He follows:

Nathaniel Barnes (1691-?) Elizabeth Barnes (1693-1752) Samuel Barnes (1695-1789) Ebenezer Barnes (1697-1798), who follows: Thomas Barnes (1700-1789) Joseph Barnes (1702-74) Gershom Barnes (1705-?)

Isaac Barnes (1728-1728) Ebenezer Barnes (1730-1798) Amos Barnes (1732-1824) Rhoda Barnes (1734-?) Elijah Barnes (1736-1760) Mehitable Barnes (1739-?) Benjamin Barnes (1741-1834), who follows: Phineas Barnes (1744-1832) Rebecca Barnes (1748-?) Jeremiah Barnes (1751-1845)

He moved to Granville, Massachusetts sometime between 1750 and 1760, where he married Mary Coe (1739-1795), the daughter of Ephraim and Hannah Miller Coe on May 12, 1763. He bought land in 1769, 1770 and 1772, and built a house where he raised his family.

  • Enlisted in Granville, Mass. on May 6, 1775 in Col. Timothy Danielson's Regiment of the Massachusetts Militia and served as a Second Corporal, appearing on the August 1, 1775 muster and pay roll of Capt. Lebbeus Ball's Company. He returned to Granville on Oct. 6, 1775. Later his signature appears with others on an order, dated Dec. 22, 1775 at Camp Roxbury, concerning compensation for eight months service in Ball's Company.
  • Commissioned a 2nd lieutenant on April 26, 1776 in Col. John Moseley's Regiment (3rd Hampshire Company) of the Massachusetts Militia, serving in Capt. Aaron Coe's Company. He later appears as a lieutenant on Coe's muster and pay role. He engaged in Oct. 21, 1776, and returned home on Nov. 17, 1776, having marched under the command of Lt. Col. Timothy Robinson to reinforce the Northern Army.
  • Appears as a lieutenant in Col. John Moseley's Regiment (Hampshire Company) of the Massachusetts Militia on the muster and pay role of Capt. William Cooley's Company. He engaged in July 19, 1777, returning home to Granville briefly on Aug. 12, before being engaged again on Aug. 17, and returning home once more on Aug. 19. The Company initially marched to support the Northern Army, and quelled an alarm at Benington on the second engagement.
  • Appears as a 2nd lieutenant in Col. Israel Chapin's (3rd) regiment, in Samuel Sloper's Company. He engaged Oct. 15, 1779, and discharged Nov. 22. The regiment was raised to support the Continental Army for 3 months.
  • Appears as a Captain in Col. John Moseley's Regiment (Hampshire Company) of the Massachusetts Militia at the head of his own company, which marched to quell a mob in Northhampton on June 12 and 16, 1782.

His first wife Mary died in 1795, afterwhich he married Lucretia Sackett , who was two years his senior and twice a widow. Lucetia died before him in 1832, and he died June 13, 1834, being buried in the West Granville Cemetery in Granville, Hampden County, Massachusetts (see ).

Rhoda Barnes (1764-?) Elijah Barnes (1766-1815), who follows: Anah Barnes (1768-1857) Lucy Barnes (1772-1845) Benjamin Barnes, Jr. (1776-1845)

"Among some boarders his family kept was one Capt. Finney, who had come to the town to enlist a company for the war. Being a foppish dude, he did not take well and met with poor success. Elijah, in a joking way, said, 'if he had enlisting orders he could raise a company in half the time he had been at work.' The Captain took him at his word, gave him a sergeant's commission with power to enlist, with verbal promise that when the squad was formed he, Finney, would take charge and release Elijah. The company was soon enlisted, when the sergeant (Elijah) got orders from headquarters to march his company into line, there being no redress he obeyed, although it was very repugnant to him. After the battle of Plattsburg, the division to which he belonged was ordered to Niagara. The march was made on foot. After arrival at Niagara he took part in the battles of Chippewa and Lundy's Lane, when he took a servere cold, obtained a furlough and started for home. His cold developed into pneumonia. He reached Albany, was admitted to the hospital at Greenbush across the river, where he died soon after, without reaching home or seeing any of his family."

Laura Barnes (1793-1863) Lucy Barnes (1795-1843) Benjamin Coe Barnes (1797-1830) Thompson Sackett Barnes (1799-1901), who follows: Sally H. Barnes (1803-1877) Dennis Barnes (1806-1899) Sophia Ann Barnes (1811-1859)

Edwin Martin Barnes (1825-1902) Dennis Edwin Barnes (1827-1864) Samuel Cook Barnes (1829-?) Sarah Ann Barnes (1829-1875) Benjamin Coe Barnes (1832-1918), who follows: Margaret Thompson Barnes (1834-1885) Laura Amelia Barnes (1836-1883) Lucy Jane Barnes (1838-1871) Charles Talbot "CT" Barnes (1840-1926) Wesley Barnes (1842-1940) William Hall Barnes (1844-?)

Charles Barnes (1859-1859) Carrie Lillian Barnes (1861-1934) Nellie Janet Barnes (1862-1920) Laura Adelaide Barnes (1864-1930) Lucy Rose Barnes (1865-1964), who follows: Ada Skinner Barnes (1869-?) Marian C. Barnes (1872-1930) Mary Barnes (1873-?)

Willard Stewart Bourne (1893-1988), who follows: Mildred Janet Bourne (1894-1972) married James Ewing Gardner (1894-1959) Donald Ellsworth Bourne (1894-1972)

Carolyn Marie MacKenzie was born Aug. 30, 1942 in Solano County, California. Gerald Joseph MacKenzie was born March 3, 1945 in Solano County, California. Shirley Marian MacKenzie was born March 14, 1950 in Solano County, California.

    Barnes, Abel Tuttle, 1911, Ancestors and Descendants of Capt. Benjamin Barnes and Charles Curtiss of Granville, Mass., 1636-1910 , Stanhope Press, Sharon, Mass., 126 p. Available at Ancestry.com and Family History Archives.

Lopez, Betty, 2011, Interview with Betty Lopez by Janet Clark on July 25, 2011 at the Loney Ranch.

This history is an evolving document.
Despite our best intentions it probably contains mistakes.
Please let us know if you spot any by sending an email to Mike Clark


William Barnes Sr. was born in Pompey, New York on May 25, 1824, a son of Orson Barnes and Eliza Phelps Barnes. [1] He was educated in the schools of Pompey and attended Manlius Academy in Manlius, New York. [1] Barnes taught school after graduating, and was one of the organizers of New York State's first formal professional development meetings for educators, annual institutes that took place in Baldwinsville in 1843 and 1844. [1] While working as a teacher, he began studying law at the Baldwinsville firm of Minard & Stansbury. [2] He later studied with Hillis & Pratt of Baldwinsville and James R. Lawrence of Syracuse. [2] Barnes was admitted to the bar in 1846, and began to practice in Utica. [1]

Barnes soon moved from Utica to Albany, where he practiced law as a partner in the firm of Hammond, King & Barnes, which also included Samuel H. Hammond. [1] For several years in the 1850s, Barnes served as special counsel to the state Department of Banking, and his examination of several banks revealed them to be insolvent, so they were dissolved. [1] Barnes was also appointed special counsel to represent the City of New York when members of the Astor family and several other wealthy residents attempted to overturn their property tax assessments. [1] In 1855, he received a state appointment as a special commissioner to examine several insurance companies based in New York City. [1] His investigation revealed them to be fraudulent, they were forced out of business, and the state legislature enacted several new laws designed to improve oversight of the industry. [1]

One of the reforms passed by the legislature included the creation of a state Department of Insurance headed by a superintendent appointed to a five-year term. [1] Barnes was named to the post in 1860, and was the first person to hold it. [1] He was reappointed in 1865, and served until 1870. [1] Barnes was credited with improving the overall condition of the insurance business in New York, and his influence was felt worldwide as the format and content of the annual reports his department produced were praised as exemplars in the insurance journals of several European countries, including England and Prussia. [1]

Originally a Democrat, in the 1840s Barnes became interested in the movement to abolish slavery. [1] He joined the Liberty Party in 1843 and supported James G. Birney for president in 1844. [1] In 1848 he joined the Free Soil Party and supported Martin Van Buren in that year's presidential election. [1]

In 1854, Barnes took a leading role in creating the Republican Party as America's main anti-slavery party and was a delegate to its first New York state conventions, which were held in Saratoga Springs and Auburn. [1] In 1855 he was the primary organizer of the party in Albany County. [1] In 1856, Barnes was one of the creators of the Kansas Aid Society, which states opposed to slavery organized to provide assistance to anti-slavery advocates during the Bleeding Kansas controversy, and was one of the planners of the two Kansas Aid conventions that were held in 1856, one in Cleveland, and the other in Buffalo. [1]

In 1872, Barnes was one of the U.S. delegates to the eighth session of the International Statistical Congress, which took place in Saint Petersburg, Russia. [1] The International Statistical Congress was an ongoing effort by representatives from Russia, the United States, and several European countries to share methods for collecting, analyzing, and presenting data. [3] Topics included agriculture, business, and education, and the participants aimed to enable more effective government action based on improved situational awareness. [3] Barnes was a leading participant in the 1872 session's subcommittee on the insurance industry, and his efforts were recognized at the end of the event when Czar Alexander II personally presented Barnes a diamond ring as a token of his thanks. [1]

In 1904, Barnes was a member of the thirteenth Universal Peace Congress, which took place in Boston. [1] The peace congresses met periodically from the mid-1800s until the 1930s, and sought to prevent wars by identifying other ways to resolve international disputes. [4] In 1907, he was a delegate to the World's Peace and Arbitration Convention. [1]

In his later years, Barnes was a resident of Nantucket, Massachusetts, where he owned a house that had originally been built for Charles O'Conor. [1] He was a frequent contributor to legal journals and history magazines. [1] Among his published works, Barnes was the author of 1864's The Settlement and Early History of Albany. [5] In addition, he prepared a history on the first fifty years of the political organization he helped found, 1904's Semi-centennial of the Republican Party. [6]

Barnes was the founder and first president of New York's state Society of Medical Jurisprudence. [1] He was also a fellow of London's Royal Statistical Society. [1] He was a member of the New York State and Albany County bar associations and a member of the American Society of International Law. [1] Barnes belonged to the American Geographical Society and National Geographic Society. [1] He was also a founder of Albany's Fort Orange Club and a member of the Albany Institute of History & Art. [1]

Barnes died at his home in Nantucket on February 22, 1913. [1] He was buried at Albany Rural Cemetery in Menands, New York. [7]

In 1849, Barnes married Emily Weed, a daughter of Whig and Republican leader Thurlow Weed. [1] She died in 1889, and in 1891 Barnes married Elizabeth "Lizzie" Balmer Williams (1844-1926), the widow of San Francisco Evening Bulletin editor Samuel Williams, who had previously worked for the Albany Evening Journal. [1] [8]

Medal of Honor Spotlight - Sgt. William H. Barnes, Co. C, 38th USCI

Only two of the fourteen African American soldiers who received the Medal of Honor for their courageous acts at the Battle of New Market Heights died during their enlistments. Sgt. Alfred B. Hilton (4th USCI) died from his New Market Heights wounds about three weeks after the battle. Pvt. William H. Barnes (38th USCI) died on Christmas Eve, 1866, while serving in Texas.

William H. Barnes was born in St. Mary’s County, Maryland. Although some sources contend he was a free tenant farmer, his service records do not inform us whether he was free or enslaved before enlisting in Company C, 38th United States Colored Infantry on February 11, 1864, at nearby Point Lookout, Maryland. The draft registration information for the 23 year old Barnes indicates he was married.

During the September 29, 1864, Battle of New Market Heights, the 38th USCI was the last of the five primary assaulting regiments to go into the fight. However, Barnes’s Medal of Honor citation states the he was “among the first to enter the enemy’s works although wounded.” After a recovery at Balfour General Hospital in Portsmouth, Virginia, he returned to duty on December 12, 1864.

It must have been satisfying to Barnes to have been among the XXV Corps soldiers who entered Richmond, the capital of the Confederacy, on April 3, 1865. A little over a month later though, the 38th USCI were among the regiments who received transfer to the Texas/Mexico border. Barnes earned a promotion to corporal in the spring of 1865, and then to sergeant that summer. Serving in an unhealthy environment resulted in many cases of disease among the black soldiers. Men who survived active combat during the war, fell victim to a host of illnesses in Texas Barnes was among them.

In the summer of 1866, Barnes reported sick. He stayed in the hospital at Indianola, Texas, for approximately the next six months before dying of tuberculosis on December 24, 1866, a month short of his regiment’s muster out. A marker notes his life and service at the San Antonio National Cemetery. Barnes receives recognition as well at the USCT memorial in Lexington Park, Maryland, in his native St. Mary’s County.

4. A college dropout wound up buying Barnes & Noble out.

By the 1960s, Barnes & Noble had outlived its namesakes and began to entertain offers from buyers. Leonard Riggio was a part-time college student at New York University who worked at the campus bookstore and was frustrated to discover he wouldn’t be allowed to oversee its operation. He dropped out and opened a competing store, the Student Book Exchange, in Greenwich Village in 1965. The business grew so successful that he was able to purchase Barnes & Noble’s flagship store (which was its own location at the time) in 1971 for $1.2 million.

Enduring legacy: William Wright Barnes and church history at Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary. Baptist institutions possess a rich heritage of individuals who have attained legendary or near legendary status.

Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary in Fort Worth, Texas, is no exception to this observation. Baptist titans such as B. H. Carroll and Lee Rutland Scarborough especially stand out in Southwestern lore. Likewise, theologian W. T. Conner and ethicist T. B. Maston continue to cast giant shadows long after their retirement.

In church history, the lengthy silhouette of William Wright Barnes endures to influence the study of his discipline as his grandchildren and great-grandchildren in the study of church history continue to study, teach, and write in seminaries, universities, and churches. Teaching church history at Southwestern from 1913 to 1953, Barnes left an unmistakable legacy in Baptist life and on the study of church history. This article will provide a brief biographical sketch of Barnes's life and a discussion of his legacy as a Baptist and as a teacher and writer.

William Wright Barnes was born in Elm City, North Carolina, on February 28, 1883. He was the youngest of six children, and both his parents placed a high priority on education. His father was a local physician, and his mother had been class valedictorian at Chowan College. One of Barnes's brothers became a physician, but apparently very early in life, William Wright Barnes's gifts in teaching were recognized.

He made a profession of faith in Christ at the age of fifteen and was baptized as a member of the Elm City Baptist Church. He attended Wake Forest College [now University] and completed both the B.A. and M.A. degrees with honors.

Upon graduation, Barnes was appointed by the Southern Baptist Convention Home Mission Board to serve in Santiago, Cuba. He served as tutor to children of American families residing there. After a brief tenure, he returned to his home county in North Carolina to serve temporarily in public schools. There, he was ordained to the ministry by his home church before moving to Louisville, Kentucky, to study at Southern Baptist Theological Seminary. Upon completion of his Th.M. degree, he returned to Havana, Cuba, where he served as principal of El Colegio Cubano-American for more than three years. During this time, he married Ethel Dalrymple, a union that would last more than forty years and produce two sons, William Wright Jr. and Arch Dalrymple.

The Barneses returned to the United States in 1912 where Barnes once again enrolled at Southern Seminary to pursue a Th.D. in church history under W. J. McGlothlin, the outstanding historian and later president of Furman University. (1)

Upon completion of his Th.D., Barnes accepted an invitation to join the faculty of the relatively new Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary in Fort Worth, Texas. He came to the seminary at a critical juncture in the institution's young history. Originally formed as a part of Baylor University in Waco, Texas, Southwestern had been chartered as a separate institution in 1908 with the goal of being moved to another location once a suitable site was found. The relocation occurred in 1910 when the seminary was moved to its present location.

The first few years of the school's life in Fort Worth were tenuous ones. Many financial and logistical challenges had to be met, and the founding president, Baptist giant B. H. Carroll, was suffering from failing health. Furthermore, there was simmering conflict between Carroll and some of the original faculty members of the seminary. Robert Baker records that one source of the conflict was the desire of some of the faculty, notably Professor J. J. Reeve and Dean of the Faculty A. H. Newman, to revise the curriculum. Baker also suggested that Newman's viewpoints regarding Baptist history and his rejection of Baptist successionism were probably another source of conflict between the two men. Newman accepted positions that William H. Whitsitt had espoused some years before that had led to his resignation from Southern Seminary. Whitsitt's resignation had been due, in large part, to Carroll's unrelenting efforts. (2)

In fact, the forced resignation of the scholarly Newman brought Barnes to the position in church history at Southwestern in 1913. Barnes accepted the position at the seminary even though he held essentially the same views regarding Baptist history as Newman and Whitsitt.

Despite the differences between the aging president and the young church historian, Barnes grew to admire the old man. Barnes later remarked that Carroll "never asked me any questions about my views on Baptist succession. He was willing for me to study Baptist history and teach what I found. With all his greatness of intellect, that was perhaps surpassed by the greatness of his heart." Barnes quickly gained respect, despite his youth. Some occupants of Seminary Hill laughed at his youthful appearance. When L. R. Scarborough was introducing Barnes to Mrs. B. H. Carroll for the first time, the lady eyed the thirty-year-old full professor and said, "Lee, I thought you were bringing a man." (3)

Barnes's summons to teach at Southwestern became a life-long commitment. Despite a number of offers to serve in other positions at other institutions, his association with the seminary spanned institutional change, denominational conflict, the Great Depression, and the Second World War.

Barnes's student and later colleague, Robert Baker, recorded that institutions such as the University of Richmond, the University of South Carolina, and Mercer University showed interest in Barnes for various positions, while Barnes rejected "definite offers" from Furman University, McMaster University at Toronto, and Southern Baptist Theological Seminary. Baker also stated that Wake Forest College "considered" him in its search for a president in 1930. Additionally, Barnes was a potential pastor for a number of prestigious congregations. (4) Despite these undoubtedly attractive offers, Barnes elected to remain at Southwestern.

Barnes received these offers for various reasons. Not only was Barnes an outstanding scholar and classroom teacher he was also active in denominational affairs and was an excellent preacher. His expertise in Baptist ecclesiology was recognized and, due in part to this expertise, Barnes served as moderator of the Tarrant Baptist Association periodically in 1914, 1922-27, and 1933-35. (5)

Despite the offers of other positions and Barnes's numerous gifts in areas such as preaching and leadership, the church historian chose to remain at Southwestern. There were several reasons why he stayed in Fort Worth. Certainly, there was a basic loyalty engendered in Barnes in his early days at Southwestern with Carroll and Scarborough. Scarborough's recognition of Barnes's administrative talents allowed the church historian to exercise his considerable gifts in that arena and further enhanced his investment in the life of the seminary. As President Scarborough traveled the state and throughout the South preaching and leading the Southern Baptist Convention's Seventy-Five Million Campaign in the 1920s, he entrusted administrative care of Southwestern to the historian's capable hands, frequently appointing Barnes acting president in his absence.

At other times in Southwestern's life, Barnes served essentially as registrar and librarian. He was one of the founders of the Southwestern Journal of Theology in its initial run in 1917. He became chairman of the theology faculty in 1926 and remained in that position until 1949. In this capacity, Barnes functioned basically as the academic dean of SWBTS. No doubt, these opportunities reinforced his loyalty to the institution. Later in life, his wife Ethel's poor health and virtual invalid condition, contributed to his decision to continue at Southwestern so that he might have the flexibility in his schedule to care for her.

The effects of denominational conflict with regards to evolutionary theory and the attacks of J. Frank Norris contributed to Barnes's decision not to abandon the seminary in the midst of the storm. Similarly, his decision to remain at the institution during the Great Depression was a product of this commitment. (6) Perhaps the greatest reason of all, however, was Barnes's love for the seminary classroom.

Barnes was well known for his teaching. Robert Baker, who was both Barnes's student and then his colleague at Southwestern, remembered his former instructor as "a hard taskmaster" but one who was "rewarding." Barnes had a powerful intellect and an incredible memory. He was most famous at Southwestern for his ability to recall and tell stories. While some students doubtless laughed at Barnes's tendency "to chase rabbits," Baker recalls that his "chasing rabbits" served "to catch the attention of the students and to make a vital point in history."

Barnes possessed a "remarkable memory" with the ability to recall "significant details, particularly in Baptist history" in an "almost uncanny fashion." This memory was undoubtedly the product of a disciplined mind and a scholarly aptitude. Barnes was proficient in Spanish, French, and German and read three other languages. He taught hymnology in the school of music on occasion and in his first year taught "Sunday School pedagogy" and "Christian sociology" in what became the Department of Religious Education at Southwestern.

Baker also wrote that he "displayed familiarity with botany, zoology, geography, mathematics, philosophy, sociology, and English and American literature. He constantly quoted in class from Greek and Latin writers." Certainly, this prodigious memory assisted him in his pulpit skills as well.

In another instance, Baker recorded that Barnes was a man of "thorough training, wide culture, and profound spirituality." He also had a considerable independent streak. William R. Estep recalls that Barnes continued to smoke an occasional cigar late in life, despite Southwestern's no-smoking policy. (7)

The church historian also had the reputation of giving grueling exams. Baker's history of Southwestern recounts one almost legendary story regarding Barnes as taskmaster.

Despite his great love for the classroom and his devotion to Southwestern Seminary, there were times when Barnes must have been tempted to leave the institution. The Great Depression was incredibly difficult for the seminary and its faculty, especially coming upon the heels of disappointment and debt that emerged from the Seventy-Five Million Campaign. Barnes was directly involved in denominational conflict. Finally, conflicts arose for Barnes that affected his relationship with President Scarborough.

Southwestern Seminary's struggles through the latter 1920s and throughout the Great Depression have been well-documented in Baker's Tell the Generations Following and do not warrant further detailed discussion here. It should be noted, however, that those years were the years that Barnes served as chairman of the theology faculty and frequently as acting president in Scarborough's absence. As chairman of the faculty, Barnes played a crucial role in maintaining faculty morale and loyalty in the face of several pay cuts and looming bankruptcy. It may well be that much of the respect that Barnes later received from the faculty came from his leadership during this critical period. (9)

Barnes's struggles with J. Frank Norris must be considered in the larger context of the denominational conflict. Norris was the controversial pastor of the First Baptist Church of Fort Worth who, prior to 1910, had been a loyal member of the denomination and avid supporter of Southwestern Seminary. As H. Leon McBeth has shown, after 1910 Norris's leadership and preaching styles underwent radical changes prompting a mass exodus of the membership of the church in 1912, including B. H. Carroll, several seminary professors, and ultimately, Scarborough. Many of these departing members-including Barnes and his family--joined Broadway Baptist Church, Fort Worth.

Norris spent the subsequent years consolidating his control over First Baptist and engaging in an ongoing battle with city officials. By 1920, however, he had begun to launch attacks on Baylor University, the Baptist General Convention of Texas, and the Southern Baptist Convention. Prompting Norris's attacks were his concerns about evolution and his opposition to the Seventy-Five Million Campaign. Generally, the "Texas Tornado" used both sensationalist tactics and subtle innuendo to carry out his verbal assaults. (10)

Barnes was drawn into the fray in 1921 when Norris implied in his newsletter that the seminary church historian was an evolutionist. In the subsequent meeting of Tarrant Baptist Association, Scarborough confronted Norris publicly. Baker wrote that the seminary president put "aside all restraint" and "thoroughly castigated Norris before the group."

The next day, Scarborough approached Barnes at the seminary and told him that Norris wanted the church historian to respond to a series of questions that the Fort Worth pastor wanted answered. Baker recorded Barnes's reply:

Scarborough's defense of Barnes was apparently the initial cause of the major eruption between the seminary president and Norris. However, Barnes's position in the conflict was quickly forgotten, as the fundamentalist's attacks on Southwestern became so caustic and Scarborough's defense so vigorous as to diminish the original source of controversy.

Barnes was not an evolutionist but understood the nature of Norris's criticism and its role in his ministry. Barnes later clearly stated that he did not believe that humans were descended from another species. But he knew that nothing that he would do could satisfy Norris and that any response on his part would be twisted.

This was not the only reason the erudite scholar refused to engage in a debate with Norris. Barnes's understanding of Scripture, theology, and Baptist polity and history forbade him from allowing any believer from becoming "the inquisitor" of his conscience. For him, it was a matter of soul liberty and the autonomy of local congregations. Norris had no authority to question Barnes in the church historian's view.

Once the battle was joined, however, the conflict would rage for the remainder of Scarborough's and Norris's lives. Scarborough and Southwestern were only two of Norris's targets. In the denomination, Norris criticized Baylor University, the Seventy-Five Million Campaign, the Southern Baptist Convention, George W. Truett, the Baptist General Convention of Texas, and the Tarrant Baptist Association.

Ultimately, this constant harassment and attempts to purge what Norris perceived as modernism, resulted in the expulsion of him and the First Baptist Church of Fort Worth from the TBA, the BGCT, and the SBC. Ironically, Barnes was serving as assistant moderator of the association when it refused to seat messengers from the church for the first time and was the moderator when the church was expelled a second time in 1925. (12)

Norris's unrelenting attacks on the SBC and its institutions and the pressures resulting from the transdenominational fundamentalist-modernist controversy led the SBC to move in the direction of adopting a confession of faith. While Barnes had no direct role in the development of the Baptist Faith and Message, the confession and subsequent statements regarding it played a significant role in his work at Southwestern.

The immediate origin of the controversy revolving around the Baptist Faith and Message came when the committee selected in 1924 to draw up the confession returned its report in 1925. The committee was comprised of E. Y. Mullins, who was, as Jesse Fletcher says, "the undisputed theological authority among Southern Baptists" Lee R. Scarborough C. P. Stealey W. J. McGlothlin S. M. Brown E. C. Dargan and R. H. Pitt.

The confession was submitted with several disclaimers that it was only a confession to guide interpretation and was not to function as a creed. As was probably expected, the statement in the confession regarding the fall of humans was the most controversial portion of the confession. On creation it stated, "Man was created by a special act of God." Stealey, editor of the Oklahoma Baptist Messenger, submitted an amendment that called for an addition which stated "and not by evolution." Considerable debate ensued. Eventually, Mullins won the day by responding, "Brethren, if we are not going to try to tell God how he created man, we should not try to tell him how he did not do it." The amendment lost by more than a two-to-one margin, but this did not end the conflict. (13)

The following year, in an attempt to quell continued unrest, George McDaniel, president of the SBC and pastor of the First Baptist Church of Richmond, addressed the convention meeting in Houston. He concluded by stating, "This convention accepts Genesis as teaching that man was the special creation of God, and rejects every theory, evolution or other, which teaches that man originated in, or came by way of, a lower animal ancestry."

M. E. Dodd of Louisiana followed with a motion "that the statement of the president on the subject of evolution and the origin of man be adopted as the sentiment of this Convention, and that from this point on no further consideration be given to this subject. " Dodd's motion was adopted unanimously. (14)

Subsequently, L. R. Scarborough then reported to the convention that the trustees of SWBTS had endorsed the McDaniel statement. Reports on the exact statement made by Scarborough vary. Scarborough contended that he had stated a simple endorsement, but others believed that he had either said or implied that all of the faculty and staff of the seminary had to sign the statement to remain at the institution. The dispute that emerged from Scarborough's report was to linger for more than two years. After Scarborough's report, Selsius E. Tull of Arkansas, an ally of Stealey and staunch antievolutionist, made the following resolution:

After brief discussion the resolution passed.

Fundamentalists believed that the confession, the McDaniel statement, and the Tull resolution meant that they had won. The moderates in the SBC were outraged and, once again, Mullins attempted to play a mediating role. Scarborough and Southwestern's perceived compliance further alienated Mullins and Southern Seminary. When word reached Barnes and other members of the Southwestern faculty, they were deeply disturbed. In Barnes's words, "that announcement created quite a stir in our ranks" adding that "the majority of the heads of departments will perhaps refuse to sign." (16)

Scarborough told the faculty that they would not be required "to sign on the dotted line." Barnes's response was that Scarborough's announcement at the meeting in Houston left "the impression on the denomination that those of us who remain here have signed." Barnes had several problems with Scarborough's support of the resolution.

First, he believed that the trustees had "no authority to pass upon articles of faith." The charter of the seminary gave that authority to the SBC. The adopted confession of faith for SWBTS was the New Hampshire Confession from its inception and according to Barnes, remained the articles of faith until the SBC adopted another confession "as the expression of the belief of the institution."

Second, Barnes agreed with South Carolina editor Z. T. Cody who "called the whole signing up business sham and hypocrisy." While Scarborough repeatedly denied that he would make the McDaniel statement a test for seminary employment, Barnes undoubtedly believed that he had. Barnes wrote J. S. Farmer, business manager of North Carolina's state paper, the Biblical Recorder, "that in so far as the actual teaching of the statement is concerned I was in agreement with it, that I do not believe that man's ascendancy or descendancy from some other animal has been proven." Barnes believed, however, "that the inclusion of such a statement in a confession of faith is a serious mistake. It has nothing to do with confessions."

Barnes's objection to the McDaniel statement, Tull resolution, and Scarborough announcement was not a scientific or even theological one. It was a matter of church polity, and in many ways, a question of integrity. Barnes believed that Scarborough and the trustees were misrepresenting Southwestern and its faculty.

Finally, Barnes believed that Scarborough's motivation was political, financial, and personal. He wrote Farmer, "I think his whole attitude is a gesture toward the ultraconservatives. He is hoping the present situation in Fort Worth may give him an opportunity to retrieve some lost prestige in Texas." The "situation in Fort Worth" to which Barnes was referring was Norris's July 17th shooting of D. E. Chipps and the Fort Worth pastor's subsequent arrest and impending trial. Barnes believed that Scarborough saw that backing the endorsement of the McDaniel and Tull resolutions as an opportunity to recapture support for the seminary that had been lost as a result of Norris's unceasing attacks on the SBC, the BGCT, the TBA, and SWBTS. (17)

From the available information, it appears that Barnes's evaluation of Scarborough's report to the SBC in Houston was correct. Both Z. T. Cody and J. S. Farmer confirmed Barnes's impressions, and Scarborough himself later recorded that the faculty and staff had endorsed the McDaniel statement. Scarborough wrote this despite the fact that the faculty had not actually signed any document at this point and despite the fact that Barnes still believed this was the impression that had been given. This impression and the report issued at the 1927 convention increased the pressure from the fundamentalists on Southern Seminary and ultimately came back to haunt Scarborough. (18)

Subsequently, the conflict intensified when the Oklahoma Baptist Convention approved a resolution by C. C. Morris and voted to withhold its funds from any institution that had not signed a statement approving the Tull resolution. Mullins, the faculty at Southern, Scarborough, and Barnes--probably on behalf of the Southwestern faculty--immediately protested. Their protest led to a heated exchange of correspondence, and, at one point, the return of funds by Southwestern to the Oklahoma Baptist Convention.

The sticking point seems to have been that while the faculty at Southwestern ratified the McDaniel statement, they had done so on a conditional agreement with Scarborough. To accept the money from Oklahoma on a further condition that they were endorsing the Morris resolution and further sign a statement to that effect violated their agreement with Scarborough. Barnes made this an issue with the seminary president.

To the church historian, such compliance with the Oklahoma Baptist Convention was filled with creedalism and coercion. Barnes pressured Scarborough to return the money, it was placed in escrow, and the Oklahoma Baptist Convention resolved the situation to the satisfaction of all. In the words of Z. T. Cody, the Oklahoma brethren "wanted some way in which to turn that bear loose!" Barnes and Scarborough did not find themselves alone in the struggle.

Mullins and the Southern faculty were in a similar situation and some in Oklahoma like J. W. Brunet sought a peaceful resolution to the crisis. Baptist editors L. L. Gwaltney of the Alabama Baptist, Livingston Johnson of the Biblical Recorder, and Z. T. Cody of the Baptist Courier all supported Barnes and the others in the conflict against J. B. Rounds of the Oklahoma Baptist Convention and C. P. Stealey, editor of the Baptist Messenger. In fact, Cody said Barnes's response to Stealey had "the ring of a man" and added that it was "exactly the kind of letters that should be written by all of our educational people." (19)

Further conflict was averted by several factors. One was that C. P. Stealey was ousted from the Baptist Messenger. Stealey had been one of the primary instigators of efforts to pressure the faculty at the seminaries not only to advocate the McDaniel statement and Tull resolution but also to sign the Morris resolution. Stealey was not going to stop at anything less than individually signed disavowals of evolution by all seminary faculty. Barnes believed that Stealey's active role had come as he sought to divert attention away from his own problems in Oklahoma as editor of the state paper.

Another factor was Barnes's leadership. The SWBTS faculty had stood virtually unanimous in their opposition to creedal enforcement of the McDaniel and Tull resolutions, and they did so in conjunction with the faculty of SBTS. As Barnes wrote to Stealey, "If the assurance you have already received of my orthodoxy has not satisfied you nothing further that I may say can do so." Barnes's strong stance forced Scarborough to stand up to Rounds, Stealey, and Morris. Ultimately, Scarborough's defense of the faculty and their position was as forceful as any Barnes had made. (20)

The relationship between L. R. Scarborough and Barnes suffered throughout this situation. Robert Baker recorded that part of the difficulty between the two men resulted from Scarborough's personality and administrative style.

The real catalyst for the difficulty between the two was Scarborough's handling of the situation regarding the McDaniel statement, and the Tull and Morris resolutions. In fact, Barnes wrote Johnson, "It is due to such inconsistencies on the part of Dr. Scarborough that much of our difficulty in Texas is due." He expressed similar sentiments to Cody. (22)

Barnes expressed his frustrations most vividly in a handwritten letter to his friend W. R. Cullam at Wake Forest College. Writing about the Oklahoma Baptist Convention's withholding financial support from SWBTS, he told Cullam:

Scarborough's difficulties were not unique. Other Baptist college, university, and seminary presidents found that treading the middle ground of their constituencies was uncomfortable territory. Certainly, Mullins found a similar experience at Southern.

Scarborough well understood the dynamics of Texas Baptist life and the conservative nature of Texas Baptists. Still, Barnes believed that SWBTS and Scarborough would have been better served by a more consistent stance and that the seminary president had brought much of the situation on himself and the institution by his initial response to the McDaniel statement at the 1926 convention. It is a credit to the character of both men that they continued to serve together in an effective manner despite these differences until Scarborough retired in 1942.

Something of Barnes's character and the reasoning behind his lengthy tenure at SWBTS when other offers beckoned may be revealed in comments found in his letter to W. R. Cullam. After discussing the aforementioned conflict, Barnes wrote Cullam, "For my part I am marking time and waiting for developments. At times I am inclined to quit it all, and at times, I determine to stand by and fight it out `if it takes all summer' or even all of a life time."

This determination is what Baker meant when he wrote, "Somewhat paradoxically, the vicious attacks of J. Frank Norris, primarily aimed at Barnes in the Seminary aspect, did more to keep Barnes at the Seminary than to run him off." (24)

Barnes's personal character was such that he was not going to be forced out of his beloved institution by Norris, Stealey, or anyone. While Norris continued in his attacks on Southwestern, fortunately, others in the SBC lost interest in the fight due to more pressing financial concerns and with the onset of the Great Depression and the Second World War.

The role of W. W. Barnes throughout this conflict is important for several reasons. As chair of the theology faculty and as a visible denominational leader, he served as a key spokesman throughout the controversy. His relationship with Scarborough was affected substantially by the conflict. Perhaps as importantly, along with his writing, that relationship lends significant insight to understanding Barnes's historiography and his methodology.

Barnes published only two books during his lengthy career. The first was a small, yet revealing book, A Study in the Development of Ecclesiology, the Southern Baptist Convention. The second was his major work, the commissioned centennial history, The Southern Baptist Convention, 1845-1953. Baker related that there were several factors that limited his writing output, some of which have been detailed or noted previously.

Barnes also wrote a number of journal articles. Review of a sampling of these articles, his two books, and an analysis of his viewpoints regarding the controversies discussed above can give an understanding of his approach to history and, specifically, to church history.

Barnes's most important publication was his history of the Southern Baptist Convention. Despite some of the criticism he received for the work and the fact that the book was delayed in publication due to this criticism, his history of the Southern Baptist Convention was a pioneer study. (25)

It was the first comprehensive look at the history of the SBC. Barnes's writing style is fluid and easy to follow, and the basic structure and organization of the book are excellent. His research is solid and focused on the use of primary sources. Almost fifty years later, it remains a good resource. He emphasized especially the role of missions and cooperation in the creation, growth, and unity of the Southern Baptist Convention. He also discussed the roles of individuals like W. B. Johnson and I. T. Tichenor in the formation and extension of the convention.

Underlying its text are the implications of the significance of key Baptist distinctives of voluntarism and local church autonomy consistent with Barnes's other writings.

It has weaknesses, particularly in addressing Southern Baptist responses to social concerns and in its slight neglect of the significance of slavery in creating the SBC and the role that race relations has played throughout the history of the denomination. It is largely a descriptive account with some analysis, but especially twentieth-century developments lack the depth of analysis that Barnes could have provided.

Barnes believed that critical to comprehending church history was the ability to understand church polity and governance. He directly related this to the history of the Southern Baptist Convention. Barnes used the history of the SBC in Study in Ecclesiology as a case study and demonstrated that one of the key principles of Baptist church polity was the idea that "a church is a self-governing, independent, supreme ecclesiastical body." Further, he related, "Baptist churches may not relinquish their sovereignty to any one group or organization." (26)

In a 1955 article for the Review and Expositor, he expanded on this concept:

Thus, for Barnes the autonomy of the local church and the relationship of churches, associations, and conventions to one another were essential to understanding Baptist history.

Relative to this was Barnes's understanding of the creation of the Southern Baptist Convention. Barnes believed that the crisis over slavery resulting in the Civil War provided the occasion for the creation of the SBC but was not the cause.

Barnes insisted that the underlying causes of the separation of Baptists in America related to "differences in ecclesiology" and "in the realm of home missions." Barnes believed that the differences in ecclesiology could be traced to the early history of Baptists in the South, the major difference being a desire for a more "compact denominational body" among Baptists in the South. The church historian also argued that "division was in the air" as early as the 1830s, but it was "the question of slavery" that "arose to divide" Baptists. (28)

Barnes also wrote three other key journal articles for the Review and Expositor that are important in understanding his view of church history. The articles consisted of lectures he delivered at Southern Seminary in Louisville.

Like E. Y. Mullins, Barnes believed that the key Baptist distinctive was soul competency. In two of these articles, Barnes traced this principle throughout church history. He believed soul competency was at the heart of evangelical theology and flowed throughout the history of Christianity.

Further, he argued that soul competency sometimes could be found under the auspices of the ancient and medieval church and sometimes found through extraecclesiastical groups considered heretical by the medieval church. He believed that both traditions indirectly influenced the Anabaptists of the Reformation.

He believed that Martin Luther was one individual who recaptured the significance of the local congregation for the theology of the church. Once again, Barnes related the principle of soul competency to ecclesiology and an understanding of the importance of ecclesiology to the study of church history. (29)

Barnes believed that Southern Baptists had largely been true to the concept of soul competency. He feared, however, that the evolution of the denomination, which took place in the 1920s and 1930s, was a deviation from its previous course. He stated in Study He feared, however, that in Ecclesiology:

Furthermore, he issued a challenge to Southern Baptists:

Hence, considering these passages against the background of the conflicts of which he found himself a part, Barnes's active defense of the principles of voluntarism, the autonomy of the local church, soul competency, and noncoercion were rooted in his interpretation of Baptist history.

The last eleven years of Barnes's career at Southwestern were some of his most rewarding despite the fact that he faced personal illness and crisis. His wife became an invalid, his sons served as Marine officers in the Pacific theater in World War II, and he had major surgery and illness.

Nevertheless, from 1942 to 1953 the aging historian recognized the fruits of a long career. He completed his history of the Southern Baptist Convention, completed more than twenty years as chair of the theology faculty, was awarded the title of Research Professor of Baptist History, and was influential in founding the Southern Baptist Historical Commission. After his retirement in 1953, he continued to be a significant part of Southwestern and Baptist life until his death in 1960 at the age of seventy-seven. (32)

As significant as Barnes's life, teaching, and administration were to Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary, as crucial as his role as a denominational leader, spokesman, and defender of Baptist principles, and as pioneering as was his history of the Southern Baptist Convention, his greatest role was the legacy in the study of church history and Baptist history that he left behind at Southwestern.

Barnes's finest student and later colleague was Robert A. Baker, the prolific chronicler of Baptist history and church history and faculty member at SWBTS for thirty-nine years. A colleague and student of both Barnes and Baker who was influenced by both men was William R. Estep, who had one seminar with Barnes and likewise became an excellent church historian. Another of Baker's outstanding students was H. Leon McBeth who, along with others, has continued the rich tradition of quality scholarship and perceptive historical work in Baptist history to the present day at Southwestern.

Barnes was a person of integrity who instilled the importance of solid historical research, integrity in personal, spiritual, and denominational matters, compelling teaching skills, and the ability to communicate effectively with laypersons and professional clergy and scholars alike. His legacy lives on in the students of Baker, Estep, and McBeth, and in their students.

(1.) Robert A. Baker, "William Wright Barnes," Baptist History and Heritage 5 (1970): 144 Robert A. Baker, "William Wright Barnes and Southwestern Seminary," Founders' Day Address, Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary, March 14, 1975, 1-2, typewritten copy in W. W. Barnes Paper Collection, 22: 4: 7, box 1, Archives, Roberts Library, Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary, Fort Worth, Texas and Samuel B. Hesler, William Wright Barnes biographical sheet, William Wright Barnes biographical file, Archives, Roberts Library, Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary, Fort Worth, Texas.

(2.) Robert A. Baker, Tell the Generations Following: A History of Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary, 1908-1983 (Nashville: Broadman Press, 1983), 135-46, 145-46, 159-62, 165-67 Baker, "Barnes," 145 and Alan J. Lefever, Fighting the Good Fight: The Life and Work of Benajah Harvey Carroll (Austin: Eakin Press, 1994), 86-94.

(3.) Baker, "Barnes," 144-45 Baker, "Barnes and Southwestern," 3 and Walker L. Knight, "W. W. Barnes: Teacher of Baptists," Baptist Standard (January 14, 1954): 5.

(5.) Baker, "Barnes and Southwestern," 9 and James E. Carter, Cowboys, Cowtown & Crosses: A Centennial History of Tarrant Baptist Association (Fort Worth: Tarrant Baptist Association, 1986), 58.

(6.) Baker, Tell the Generations, 301, 305 Baker, "Barnes," 146 Baker, "Barnes and Southwestern," 6 and W. W. Barnes, "Retrospect and Prospect," Southwestern Journal of Theology I (October, 1958): 8.

(7.) Baker, "Barnes and Southwestern," 9 Baker, Tell the Generations, 206, 212, 265, 305 and Letter from W. R. Estep to the author, December 29, 1999.

(8.) Baker, Tell the Generations, 305.

(10.) H. Leon McBeth, "John Franklyn Norris: Texas Ternado," Baptist History and Heritage 32 (April 1997): 30-33 Barry Hankins, God's Rascal: J. Frank Norris & the Beginnings of Southern Fundamentalism (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1996), 14-15 and Baker, Tell the Generations, 220-22.

(11.) Baker, Tell the Generations, 222-23.

(12.) Carter, 53-56. For more on Norris and his relationship with Southern Baptists, see Hankins, God's Rascal, and McBeth, "John Franklyn Norris."

(13.) Annual, Southern Baptist Convention, 1925, 76 Jesse Fletcher, The Southern Baptist Convention: A Sesquicentennial History (Nashville: Broadman & Holman, 1994), 141-43 and Herschel H. Hobbs, "The Baptist Faith and Message--Anchored but Free," Baptist History and Heritage 33 (July 1978): 33-34.

(14.) Annual, Southern Baptist Convention, 1926, 18. See also William E. Ellis, "A Man of Books and a Man of the People": E. Y Mullins and the Crisis of Moderate Southern Baptist Leadership (Macon, Ga.: Mercer University Press, 1985), 191ff.

(15.) Annual, Southern Baptist Convention, 1926, 98.

(16.) Fletcher, 143-44 Ellis, 197-99 and Letter from W. W. Barnes to Z. T. Cody, July 22, 1926, located at Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary. Barnes's correspondence in this collection hereafter cited as Barnes at SWBTS.

(17.) Barnes letter to Cody, July 22, 1926, Barnes at SWBTS Letter from W. W. Barnes to J. S. Farmer, September 4, 1926, Barnes at SWBTS and Hankins, 118-19.

(18.) Barnes letter to Farmer, September 4, 1926, Barnes at SWBTS Letter from J. S. Farmer to W. W. Barnes, September 21, 1926, Barnes at SWBTS and Lee Rutland Scarborough, A Modern School of the Prophets: A History of the Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary, Its First Thirty Years (Nashville: Broadman Press, 1939), 159-60.

(19.) Ellis, 199-201 Letter from C. P. Stealey to W. W. Barnes, December 8, 1927 (Barnes at SWBTS) Letter from W. W. Barnes to C. E Stealey, December 9, 1927 (Barnes at SWBTS) Letter from Kyle M. Yates to W. W Barnes, December 16, 1927 (Barnes at SWBTS) Letter from W. W. Barnes to Kyle M. Yates, December 20, 1927 (Barnes at SWBTS) Letter from Z. T. Cody to W. W. Barnes, February 4, 1928 (Barnes at SWBTS) Letter from Livingston Johnson to W. W. Barnes, February 13, 1928 (Barnes at SWBTS) Letter from W. W. Barnes to L. L. Gwaltney, February 21, 1928 (Barnes at SWBTS) Letter from L. L. Gwaltney to W. W. Barnes, February 24, 1928 (Barnes at SWBTS) Letter from W. W. Barnes to Livingston Johnson, April 4, 1928 (Barnes at SWBTS) Letter from W. W. Barnes to Z. T, Cody, April 4, 1928 (Barnes at SWBTS) Letter from C. C. Morris to L. R. Scarborough, April 5, 1928 (Barnes at SWBTS) Letter from L. R. Scarborough to C. C. Morris, April 6, 1928 (Barnes at SWBTS) and Letter from Z. T. Cody to W. W. Barnes, April 7, 1928 (Barnes at SWBTS). See also Barnes's historical account of this sequence of events in W. W. Barnes, The Southern Baptist Convention, i845-1953 (Nashville: Broadman Press, 1954), 257-61.

(20.) Ellis, 201 Barnes letter to Yates, December 20, 1927 Barnes letter to Gwaltney, February 21, 1928 Letter from W. W. Barnes to Livingston Johnson, February 7, 1928 (Barnes at SWBTS) and Scarborough letter to Morris, April 6, 1928.

(22.) Letter from Barnes to Johnson, April 4, 1928 and letter from Barnes to Cody, April 4, 1928.

(23.) Letter from W. W. Barnes to W. R. Cullam, February 24, 1927 (Barnes at SWBTS).

(24.) Barnes letter to Cullam, February 24, 1927 and Baker, "Barnes," 145.

(25.) Apparently, W. O. Carver, chairman of the history commission serving in an editorial capacity, was one of those critical of Barnes's work. Carver opposed the publication of history of the SBC and was partially responsible for its delay in publication. Part of the cause in the delay of publication was due to the health problems of both Barnes and his wife. Ultimately, the commission chose E. C. Routh to provide an editorial revision of the text and asked Porter Routh to write an additional chapter covering the period from 1946-1953. Brief mention of some of this is found in the Preface. This author was unable to find any documentation at SWBTS or in the Barnes files there that indicated the reasons for Carver's objections. It has been perceived, however, that Carver held a bias against Barnes because of his affiliation with Southwestern and Texas and would have preferred that someone else write the history. Part of his objection may have come from the long-standing rivalry between the two institutions.

(26.) W. W. Barnes, A Study in the Development of Ecclesiology, The Southern Baptist Convention (Fort Worth: By the author, 1934, reprint ed., Dallas: Baptist General Convention of Texas, 1997), 11. Hereafter cited as Study in Ecclesiology.

(27.) W. W. Barnes, "Churches and Associations Among Baptists," Review and Expositor 52 (April 19551): 199.

(28.) W. W. Barnes, "Why the Southern Baptist Convention Was Formed," Review and Expositor 41 (January 1944): 3, 5, 8, 9 and Barnes, The Southern Baptist Convention, 12-32.

(29.) W. W. Barnes, "Progress of Baptist Principles from Constantine to Luther and the Anabaptists," Review and Expositor 23 (January :1926): 44, 49, 57, 58, 59 W. W. Barnes, "Progress of Baptist Principles from Jesus and Paul to Constantine," Review and Expositor 23 (January 1926): 303, 304, 309, 310-13 and W. W. Barnes, "Luther's View of the Church," Review and Expositor 14 (October 1917): 419-25.

(30.) Barnes, Study in Ecclesiology, 34.

(31.) Ibid., 78. Emphasis Barnes's.

(32.) Baker, "Barnes and Southwestern," 8.

Michael Williams is dean of humanities and social sciences and associate professor of history, Dallas Baptist University, Dallas, Texas.

Heroes of history: In remembrance of William A. Barnes

Photo By Chief Petty Officer William Colclough | U.S. Coast Guard World War II veteran William A. Barnes provides an oral history interview at his home in hospice in Jackson, Nov. 28, 2012. Barnes passed away March 15. see less | View Image Page



Story by Petty Officer 2nd Class William Colclough

U.S. Coast Guard District 8

NEW ORLEANS - Born July 15, 1920 and died March 15, 2013, William A. Barnes is now Clarksdale, Miss.’s most legendary resident. As he rests in peace in Jackson, Miss., Barnes shares citizenship with fellow Mississippi Delta luminaries such as Robert Johnson, Tennessee Williams and W.C. Handy. While the bluesman Johnson sold his soul, Williams his plays and Handy, the very art and business of blues, Barnes sold life dearly to enemies of his country but gave it freely to rescue those in peril as a true blue-suiter Coast Guardsman.

Unlike them, however, Barnes is a full-fledged member of the Greatest Generation. This is a club so elite there is no card, just a bullet-holed dog tag and perhaps some scars, memories or pieces of lead still embedded unbeknownst. One could say they regard aches and pain as merely weakness departing the body.

Originally, Barnes waited in line to sign up with the U.S. Navy, but the line was too long. He then enlisted in the U.S. Coast Guard Dec. 8, 1941, the day after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.

Following an initial assignment to the Manhattan Beach Coast Guard Training Center in New York and a short stay at the Merchant Marine Academy, he was assigned to the USS PC 590.

Barnes served as a gunner for a 20-mm anti-aircraft machine gun on the bridge of the PC 590, which was a patrol craft and submarine chaser in the Pacific theater during World War II. He is credited with damaging or destroying several Japanese aircraft, including some possibly flown by Kamikaze suicide pilots.

From there, he and his shipmates sailed to Pearl Harbor to begin the task of escorting large convoys of battleships, supply ships, tankers and troop transports to combat zones in the South Pacific. In the nearly two years he spent aboard PC 590, there were no losses among the ships escorted by the cutter. In 1945, a typhoon struck the American fleet supporting operations around Okinawa. The anchor line of PC 590 broke during the storm and the cutter crashed into a reef. The crew was rescued by their comrades on nearby ships despite the dangers of typhoon conditions, but PC 590 broke apart and became partially submerged.

"It was a terrible sight to see them take an ax and cut that towline, Barnes remembered. "We got stuck in a crater and stayed there for five days. We went wherever Mother Nature took us."

Now adrift in the most isolated part of the Pacific, Barnes and the crew drifted for 62 days - right into the cradle of a reef. The hull plating tore, split and collapsed like breaking waves. Fast currents from the typhoon thrust the ship straight toward the Sea of Japan.

"We were almost to the waters of Japan, and, we didn't know a submarine was right below us," Barnes recalled. "They surfaced right next to us all of a sudden. I swung my 20-mm around. Then, I saw the most beautiful thing in the world - raising of the American flag."

During those two months while either adrift or dead in the water, the crew ran out of food. A carpenter's mate cannibalized some wire from one of the ship's service generators and made fishing line.

"We had salmon for breakfast, salmon for lunch, and you guessed it - salmon for dinner," Barnes said.

After 60 days adrift near Midway Island, a troop convoy ship arrived and towed the PC 590 back to a dry dock in Pearl Harbor.The crew disembarked to what was known as a marine rest area, where they stayed at none other than the Royal Hawaii Hotel.

"It was the swankiest hotel in the world," said Barnes. "They served us five meals a day - no salmon of course."

After 10 days of rest and relaxation, Barnes and his shipmates boarded a repaired PC 590 and resumed the mission of escorting battleship convoys. On Aug. 15, 1945, the Empire of Japan surrendered and cemented the end of the war and the total victory of the Allies over the Axis powers. Barnes ended his service Nov. 28, 1945. The remaining four months of his service as a yeoman he helped other Coast Guardsmen process discharges.

Before he passed away, Barnes donated his original World War II petty officer 1st class uniform, vintage photographs and service memorabilia during an official commemoration ceremony at the Mississippi Armed Forces Museum at Camp Shelby, Miss., Nov. 16, 2013.

Right up to his last days, he gave a part of himself freely. He literally could not wait to serve. For, he went from the shortest line of the Coast Guard recruiting office in 1941 all the way to that long blue line of sterling shipmates who man the rails of the hallowed halls of our nation’s history.

There is no app for honor or heroism on a smart phone, but if one googles William A. Barnes, they will soon discover his life was the steady application of decency and dedication. He and a dwindling number of veterans of World War II are dying at a rate of more than 600 a day.

As a result, there are approximately 1.2 million veterans remaining of the 16 million who served in World War II. There is the 99 percent, the one percent, and there are the two-fifths of one percent of the American population who gave some. And, with their last breath, they gave all. Forget them we will not.

Barnes, like many of his band of brothers, is now a hero of history. As each of them pass, a torrent of 300 million tears rain the hearts of a grateful nation. "I hope that we have set a good record that you can live up to. It really was a worldwide war, because we were all over the world it seemed. I just ask you please be careful as you can and always support this great nation," Barnes concluded during an oral history interview Nov. 28, 2012, in hospice at his home in Jackson.

Click on the video to hear Mr. Barnes in his own words. For his family and friends, he shared the following final thoughts:

This surname is in the top 162,000 names in the US Census from 2010. (There must be at least 100 to make the list).

There are 218241 BARNES records listed in the 2010 US Census, and it is the Number 110 ranked name. A BARNES makes up 73.99 of every 100k people in the population.

Other US Census data for BARNES
64.81% are White Alone (Non-Hispanic)
29.28% are Black Alone (Non-Hispanic Black or African American Alone)
2.33% are Hispanic or Latino origin
0.48% are Asian Alone (Non-Hispanic Asian and Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander Alone)
0.75% are American Indian (Non-Hispanic American Indian and Alaska Native Alone)
2.35% Non-Hispanic Two or More Races

Watch the video: Γουίλιαμ Συρίγος - Δανάη