(IX-145: dp. 4,398; 1. 400'0"; b. 62'1"; dr. 29'5"; s.
10.0 k.; cgl. 133; a. 1 4", 1 3", 8 20mm.)
The second Villalobos (IX-145)—a tanker built as William F. Herrin at Newport News, Va., by the Newport News Shipbuilding and Drydock Co.—was launched on 4 February 1911. Initially sailing under the flag of the Associated Oil Co., the tanker was twice renamed prior to her Navy service-first as Colorado and then as Typhoon. On 19 October 1943, the Navy acquired the ship under a bareboat charter from the Maritime Commission's War Shipping Administration.
Although the Navy approved the name Villalobos for this venerable acquisition on 3 November 1943, subsequent records continued to refer to her as Typhoon The war diary entries for Escort Division (CortDiv) 16; CortDiv 10; Commander, Central Pacific, and Task Group (TG) 51.6 all call the ship Typhoon through October 1944—11 months after the ship was ostensibly renamed. Documentary evidence for this ship's career is fragmentary at best, but as far as can be determined, she entered the war under her civilian name.
In any case, the ship sailed for the Pacific and soon supported Operation "Galvanic," the invasion of the Gilbert Islands. She fueled escort and screening ships in December 1943 while anchored in the lagoon of recently secured Tarawa Atoll. She subsequently embarked service troops and was assigned to TG 51.7, the Northern Garrison Group, for Operation "Flintlock," the conquest of the Marshall Islands. In company with SS Titan and escorted by Sederstrom (DE31), Typhoon supported the occupation of Kwajelein and Majuro and completed her tanker and transport duties for the conquest of the Marshalls by 8 February 1944.
Meanwhile, American planning for the recapture of Guam and the capture of Saipan had proceeded space. Typhoon took part in these operations from 27 July to 9 August 1944. With TG 51.6, Typhoon continued to serve double duty as both tanker and transport. She commenced unloading at Apra Harbor, Guam, on 3 August and completed the task on the 6th.
The ship then served in the western Pacific for the remainder of August and through September. As an element of TG 31.5, Typhoon departed Ulithi on 24 October, bound for Eniwetok. For the rest of 1944, as American forces pressed relentlessly onward towards the Japanese homeland, she labored as station tanker in the Ulithi-Eniwetok area.
About this time, the name Villalobos finally caught up with the tanker. She was classified as IX-14S and commissioned. Attached to Service Squadron 9, Service Force, Pacific Fleet, she continued providing the "black gold" necessary for the smooth wartime operations of the Fleet.
Departing Hollandia, New Guinea, on 15 April 1945, the tanker proceeded for Mios Woendi, Padaido Group Netherlands East Indies and made port there on the 18th. Villalobos remained at Mios Woendi through the late spring and into the early summer, providing lubricants and other petroleum products for merchantmen cargo vessels, and Australian corvettes-ships whose fuel requirements were light.
During the ship's sojourn at Mios Woendi, she received the welcome news that Germany had unconditionally surrendered. A little over three months later, on 15 August, the venerable tanker got underway for the Philippines as the war in the Pacific finally came to an end. Stopping at Morotai on 18 August, en route, she arrived at Zamboanga on 19 August, dropping anchor in Basilan Strait.
Villalobos remained anchored at Mindanao through November as station tanker, providing fuel for small American cargo and merchant vessels. Directed to proceed to Palawan, the ship-with Army tug YT-15 in tow-got underway on 7 November and made port at Puerto Princessa on 9 November. She then headed to San Pedro Bay, Leyte, and delivered her charge upon arrival.
Villalobos next reported to the Ship Repair Base, Manicani Island, off Samar. Soon after her arrival, a board of inspection and repairs convened, looked over the ship, and recommended that she be retained only until no longer needed. After Iying off Manicani Island from 1 to 17 December, Villalobos steamed to Subic Bay and commenced preparations for going out of service.
Villalobos was decommissioned on 16 February 1946 and struck from the Navy list 10 days later. On 31 August 1948 in Manila, the Maritime Commission transferred the tanker to the Maritime Petroleum Society and Navigation Co., Genoa, Italy, for mercantile service.
The ship-as Typhoon-received three battle stars for her World War II service.
The Pink Triangle: From Nazi Label to Symbol of Gay Pride
Before the pink triangle became a worldwide symbol of gay power and pride, it was intended as a badge of shame. In Nazi Germany, a downward-pointing pink triangle was sewn onto the shirts of gay men in concentration camps—to identify and further dehumanize them. It wasn’t until the 1970s that activists would reclaim the symbol as one of liberation.
Homosexuality was technically made illegal in Germany in 1871, but it was rarely enforced until the Nazi Party took power in 1933. As part of their mission to racially and culturally “purify” Germany, the Nazis arrested thousands of LGBT individuals, mostly gay men, whom they viewed as degenerate.
The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum estimates 100,000 gay men were arrested and between 5,000 and 15,000 were placed in concentration camps. Just as Jews were forced to identify themselves with yellow stars, gay men in concentration camps had to wear a large pink triangle. (Brown triangles were used for Romani people, red for political prisoners, green for criminals, blue for immigrants, purple for Jehovah&aposs Witnessesਊnd black for "asocial" people, including prostitutes and lesbians.)
Homosexual prisoners at the concentration camp at Sachsenhausen, Germany, wearing pink triangles on their uniforms on December 19, 1938.
At the camps, gay men were treated especially harshly, by guards and fellow prisoners alike. “There was no solidarity for the homosexual prisoners they belonged to the lowest caste,” Pierre Seel, a gay Holocaust survivor, wrote in his memoir I, Pierre Seel, Deported Homosexual: A Memoir of Nazi Terror.
An estimated 65 percent of gay men in concentration camps died between 1933 and 1945. Even after World War II, both East and West Germany upheld the country’s anti-gay law, and many gays remained incarcerated until the early 1970s. (The law was not officially repealed until 1994.)
The early 1970s was also when the gay rights movement began to emerge in Germany. In 1972, The Men with the Pink Triangle, the first autobiography of a gay concentration camp survivor, was published. The next year, post-war Germany’s first gay rights organization, Homosexuelle Aktion Westberlin (HAW), reclaimed the pink triangle as a symbol of liberation.
𠇊t its core, the pink triangle represented a piece of our German history that still needed to be dealt with,” Peter Hedenström, one of HAW’s founding members said in 2014.
Memorial plaques for homosexuals, Jehovah&aposs Witnesses and Wehrmacht deserters are placed where once stood one of the demolished barracks in Buchenwald concentration camp near Weimar, Germany.
Horacio Villalobos/Corbis/Getty Images
Afterwards, it began cropping up in other LGBT circles around the world. In 1986, six New York City activists created a poster with the words SILENCE = DEATH and a bright pink upward-facing triangle, meant to call attention to the AIDs crisis that was decimating populations of gay men across the country. The poster was soon adopted by the organization ACT UP and became a lasting symbol of the AIDS advocacy movement.
The triangle continues to figure prominently in imaging for various LGBT organizations and events. Since the 1990s, signs bearing a pink triangle enclosed in a green circle have been used as a symbol identifying “safe spaces” for queer people. There are pink triangle memorials in San Francisco and Sydney, which honor LGBT victims of the Holocaust. In 2018, for Pride Month, Nike released a collection of shoes featuring pink triangles.
Although the pink triangle has been reclaimed as an empowering symbol, it is ultimately a reminder to never forget the past𠅊nd to recognize the persecution LGBT people still face around the world.
Benjamin Harrison: Early Life and Career
Harrison was born on August 20, 1833, in North Bend, Ohio he grew up on a farm located near the Ohio River below Cincinnati. His father, John Harrison, was a farmer, and his grandfather, William Henry Harrison, was elected as the ninth president of the United States in 1840, but died of pneumonia only one month after he took office. Benjamin Harrison graduated from Miami University in Oxford, Ohio, in 1852 and married Caroline Lavinia Scott the following year the couple would go on to have two children. After studying law in Cincinnati, Harrison moved to Indianapolis, Indiana, in 1854 and set up his own law practice.
Did you know? Benjamin Harrison was the last Civil War general to serve as president of the United States. He stood five feet six inches tall, and was called "Little Ben" by his Democratic opponents.
Though his father had warned Benjamin of the pressures of a life in politics, his wife encouraged his political ambitions. The young Harrison became active in state politics in Indiana, joining the fledgling Republican Party, which had been built on the opposition to slavery and its extension into the western territories. He supported the first Republican presidential candidate, John C. Frémont, in 1856 and Abraham Lincoln in 1860. When the Civil War broke out in 1861, Harrison joined the Union Army as a lieutenant in the 70th Indiana Volunteer Infantry Regiment, and he would attain the rank of brevet brigadier general by 1865. Back in Indiana after war’s end, Harrison resumed his law practice and political activity, campaigning unsuccessfully for the Republican gubernatorial nomination in 1872. Four years later, he won the nomination but lost a close race in the general election.
History of Philippine Art
-The period BEFORE the first colonizers. The Philippines already have an indigenous art traditions that is unique and rich.
-The use of Stories ( Literary Arts) was the way of the people in this period to pass on Cultures and Traditions.
-Gold has peen part of Filipino accessories even BEFORE the arrival of the Spaniards.
Indigenous people like Aetas preserved and kept the art traditions in this early period.
People from Ifugao also contributed to the earliest art traditions like the Mombaki Ritual, Jars, and many
-Rituals are considered the earliest form of theater that is expressed through Music, Songs, Dance, Chants and many more.
- Cave drawings are considered the earliest form of Painting done by early Filipinos.
- Sculpture is considered a visual art pottery like the Manunggul Jar is one example.
-Tattoo Arts and Buildings of Bahay Kubo
Islamic Colonial Period
-Started in Sulu in the 13th Century.
-We were taught the Islamic Language, Islamic reading and writings, and Religious schools were built.
- Quran reading was introduced.
- The religion was spread in Mindanao and embraced by Maranao, Maguindanao, Tausog, Yakan, Samal, Badjao as well as other areas in Palawan,
-Sayyid Abbubakar arrived and taught the Islamic reading, writing, and language.
- Mosque were built facing the direction of Kabah (black Shrine)
-Ukkil/Okir was the dominant design in Muslim.
Spanish Colonial Period
-In 1543, Spanish Explorer Ruy Lopez de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in Honor or Philip II of Spain.
-In 1565, The first Spanish settlement in the archipelago was established by Miguel Lopez de Legazpi.
- Manila became the Asian hub of the Manila-Acapulco galleon fleet.
-Lowland Christians were highlighted in this period and all artworks are Religious/ Devotional in nature.
- Manyan of Mindoro Baybayin was the only preserved traditional writings of the Filipinos.
- Doctrina Christiana ( Teachings of Christianity) was used to teach the religion of Christianity in the country.
-Ruz Lopez de Villalobos who named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas
- MIguel Lopez de Legazpi who established the first Spanish settlement in the archipelago.
-Esteban Villanueva made a series of 14 paintings called Basi Revolt that expressed the rage of the Filipinos.
- Nicolas dela Cruz Bagay who made the first Scientific map of the Philippines.
-Juan Luna who won as Gold Medalist for his great work in making the Spolarium.
-Felix Resurreccion Hidalgo- Madrid who made Virgenes Christianas expuestas al Populacho
-Plaza Complex was introduced.
- Baroque churches incorporated with Filpino design.
-Churches built in cruciform follows the Latin cross.
- Bahay na bato/ Bahay na Tisa
- Santos which are made of ivory and wood.
- Relleves which are facade of churches.
- Retalbo which a is a form of altar.
- Carroza which is Apedestal used in religious Catholic procession.
-Pasyon/pabasa introduced in 1742 which narrates the passion of Christ.
-Kundiman/Balitaw which is an Filipino love song.
-Zarzuela of Sarsuela is form of theater that is popular in this period.
-Senakulo which is a traditional part of Lent in several Christians denominations particularly in Catholic traditions.
-Komedya a play written to dramatize the recent capture by a Christian Filipino army of an Islamic stronghold.
-Moro-moro or the Komedia version of the Tagalog.
-Araguio/Arakyo which is the Komedia version in Nueva Ecija
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Today, Rizal’s immortality extends to national hero status, with numerous awards, national monuments, parks, associations, movies, poems, and books dedicated to his memory.
Today, Rizal’s immortality extends to national hero status, with numerous awards, national monuments, parks, associations, movies, poems, and books dedicated to his memory. Rizal’s writings proliferate on the Internet. His works, once considered seditious propaganda by some, are now available as free downloads. 7 Admirers who take to social media characterize Rizal as their hero and post facts about his background and achievements or quotes from his texts. 8 The power of Rizal’s narratives transcend the paper documents handwritten 125 years ago. He is remembered as a Filipino writing for his people, a native son who used the tools of storytelling to expose the truth about life under colonial rule.
Colonialism: The Sequel
Scholars argue that the execution of Rizal inspired a broader fight for freedom from the Spanish government. Led by heroes such as Bonifacio, the Philippine Revolution began in 1896 and included numerous battles against Spanish forces on multiple fronts. By 1898, as Spain was fighting to quell the uprisings in the Philippines, it became embroiled in the Spanish-American War. After losing to the United States in several land and naval battles, Spain released the Philippines and other colonies to the US in exchange for US $20 million, as agreed upon in the Treaty of Paris of 1898. During the negotiation of the treaty, the American Anti-Imperialist League opposed the annexation of the Philippines. Composed of social, political, and economic luminaries of the era (for example, activist Jane Addams and former President Grover Cleveland), the league organized a series of publications criticizing the US government’s colonial policies. Mark Twain, prominent author, wrote for the The New York Herald in 1900:
I have read carefully the Treaty of Paris, and I have seen that we do not intend to free, but to subjugate the people of the Philippines. We have gone there to conquer, not to redeem. . . . It should, it seems to me, be our pleasure and duty to make those people free, and let them deal with their own domestic questions in their own way. And so I am an anti-imperialist. I am opposed to having the eagle put its talons on any other land. 9
The treaty was hotly debated by the Senate. Ultimately, ratification of the treaty was approved on February 6, 1899, by a vote of fifty-seven in favor and twenty-seven against—a single vote more than the required twothirds majority. Meanwhile in the Philippines, Emilio Aguinaldo, a Filipino leader in the fight for freedom, declared an independent Philippine government—which neither the Spanish nor United States governments acknowledged. When the final version of the Treaty of Paris was enacted, the islands once again became subject to the laws and policies of another distant nation.
Americans who supported annexing the Philippines viewed the archipelago as a doorway through which the United States could gain more of a financial foothold in Asia while extending its empire overseas. Before the US could begin fully establishing control of the islands, a new war began. Some scholars have termed it “the first Việt Nam,” referencing the extended armed conflict which ended in 1975 between North Việt Nam and the US, whom many North Vietnamese also perceived as an imperialist aggressor. The Philippine-American war began on February 4, 1899, when American soldiers opened fire on Filipinos in Manila. In the first years of US occupation, the battles were fought between the new US colonizers and Filipino guerrilla armies tired of existing under any foreign rule. James Hamilton-Paterson, a British travel writer and commentator on the Philippines, estimates that the war’s death toll included over 4,000 American and 16,000 Filipino soldiers, as well as almost one million civilians who perished from hunger and disease. 10 Although the war officially ended in 1902, skirmishes continued for several years afterward.
Under the rule of the United States, a plethora of people, ideas, and changes to the infrastructure flooded the archipelago. During this era, Christian groups flourished as Protestants and other denominations began proselytizing via missionary expeditions. Organizations such as the Salvation Army and the YMCA began operations in the Philippines the so-called “Big Three” of American voluntary associations, the Lions Club, Kiwanis, and Rotary, also quickly spread throughout the islands. The United States military sponsored the establishment of hospitals and funded improvements to roads and bridges. Prominent urban planner Daniel Burnham visited the Philippines in 1904 and designed the capital city of Manila for redevelopment. 11 US culture dominated Philippine life. Linguist Bonifacio P. Sibayan, for example, discusses the introduction of English by American colonial authorities as the medium of instruction in schools: “English thus became the only medium of instruction in the schools, the only language approved for use in the school, work, in public school buildings, and on public school playgrounds.” 12 Sibayan further explains that while English-only eventually changed to bilingual instruction, English usage had become pervasive throughout the whole of society. Throughout the business and government sector, English became the dominant language, as well as the language that bridged communication gaps between regional Filipino cultural groups who did not share an indigenous language.Today, English, along with Filipino, is recognized as a national language of the Philippines. Renato Constantino, Filipino scholar, characterized the introduction of English as a detriment to Filipino society: “With American textbooks, Filipinos started learning not only the new language but also a new way of life, alien to their traditions . . . This was the beginning of their education, and at the same time, their miseducation.” 13 Filipino linguists and other social scientists continue researching and debating the extent to which indigenous cultural values and traditions were lost with the change in language. 14 Nevertheless, English proved beneficial to at least some Filipinos. The US government sponsored some students from the elite upper class to study in American schools and, upon their return, work in the government. Other Filipinos, recruited by US companies beginning in the colonial era, migrated to California, Hawai`i, and other states, lured by the promise of lucrative work compared to wage rates picking sugarcane and pineapple in the Philippines. With at least some familiarity with the language, Filipinos were able to communicate with their foreign employers.
In 1935, the United States designated the Philippines as a commonwealth and established a Philippine government that was meant to transition to full independence. During World War II, however, Japan attacked the Philippines and held the country from 1941 to 45. Lydia N. Yu-Jose in “World War II and the Japanese in the Prewar Philippines” (1996) describes an immigrant population of approximately 20,000 Japanese people living in the islands prior to the war. 15 Some were temporary migrants, content to work in the Philippines for several years and then return to Japan with their earnings. Others were permanent settlers, many of whom would go on, for example, to establish agricultural operations, open factories, and begin logging operations. Some of these Japanese business owners, Yu-Jose explains, were utilized as advisers and installed as local leaders by the occupying army. Initially, some regarded the Japanese as liberators, freeing the Philippines from the United States and bringing the islands into the Japanese empire. However, in light of the subsequent war atrocities, harsh realities came to light. In October 1943, the Japanese established what is now referred to as the Second Philippine Republic, with José P. Laurel as president. Widely recognized as simply a puppet government, the dominating Japanese military continued occupying the area. Local factories under Japanese control produced goods for the war effort while Filipinos suffered food shortages.
Against this backdrop, Filipinos once again organized widespread resistance throughout the islands. Over 250,000 people used guerrilla warfare tactics against Japanese occupiers, who steadily lost control as the war continued. During the war, famed General Douglas MacArthur also organized American troops to fight alongside the Filipinos. From February to March 1945, Filipino soldiers and US troops fought in the Battle of Manila, which would eventually mark the end of the occupation. During this month, at least 100,000 civilians died at the hands of Japanese soldiers. Overall, scholars estimate between 500,000 and one million deaths of Filipinos during the World War II Japanese occupation.
After the end of the war, the United States and the Philippines signed the Treaty of Manila on July 4, 1946 Manuel Roxas transitioned from the President of the Commonwealth of the Philippines to first President of an independent Philippine Republic.
Guide to the Present
Yet while “independent” implied a Philippines officially free from foreign rule, many contemporary narratives of Filipino identity, citizenship, and statehood are inevitably influenced by the colonial past and, some say, the continuing undue influence of other countries. The political, social, and economic elites of the country, for example, are often members of the same families that have held power in the country for generations. Gavin Shatkin’s “Obstacles to Empowerment: Local Politics and Civil Society in Metropolitan Manila, the Philippines” 16 traces how Spanish and US colonial authorities granted extensive rights and privileges to favored landowners. Many of these families later leveraged their power into political and economic dynasties, leading to a contemporary Philippine government mired in nepotism, cronyism, and corruption. 17
After war reparations were paid in the 1950s, Japanese businesses and investors soon returned to the islands. Today, Japan is a strategic economic and political partner of the Philippine government. However, as in the aftermath of Spanish and United States colonialism, Filipinos still struggle with defining a national identity after such widespread traumas. Other challenges for the Philippine state today include settling a territorial dispute regarding areas of the South China Sea with the People’s Republic of China allowing the return of the United States military to the islands brokering a lasting peace with the historically Muslim-dominated south coping with the increasing number of Filipinos working overseas, as well as the subsequent social and economic consequences of this migration and reducing poverty. These realities, juxtaposed against the Philippine Department of Tourism slogan, “It’s more fun in the Philippines,” suggests that understanding today’s Republic of the Philippines means studying the historical roots of power and influences born from the imposition of colonial structures.
The evolutionary history of colour polymorphism in Ischnura damselflies
A major challenge in evolutionary biology consists of understanding how genetic and phenotypic variation is created and maintained. In this study, we investigated the origin(s) and evolutionary patterns of the female-limited colour polymorphism in ischnuran damselflies. These consist of the presence of one to three colour morphs: one androchrome morph with a coloration that is similar to the male and two gynochrome morphs (infuscans and aurantiaca) with female-specific coloration. We (i) documented the colour and mating system of 44 of the 75 taxa within the genus Ischnura, (ii) reconstructed the evolutionary history of colour and mating system to identify the ancestral state, (iii) evaluated the stability of the colour morph status over time and (iv) tested for a correlation between colour and mating system. We found that the ancestral female colour of Ischnura was monomorphic and aurantiaca and that colour morph status changed over time, characterized by many gains and losses across the species tree. Our results further showed that colour polymorphism is significantly more frequent among polyandric species, whereas monandric species tend to be monomorphic. Research on some Ischnura species has shown that colour morphs have evolved to reduce male mating harassment, and our finding that the same phenotypic morphs have evolved multiple times (convergent evolution) suggests that several species in this genus might be experiencing similar selective pressures.
Keywords: ancestral state colour polymorphism comparative method correlated evolution damselflies.
© 2018 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2018 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.
Sebastian Villalobos was born on the 17th of January in 1996 (Millennials Generation). The first generation to reach adulthood in the new millennium, Millennials are the young technology gurus who thrive on new innovations, startups, and working out of coffee shops. They were the kids of the 1990s who were born roughly between 1980 and 2000. These 20-somethings to early 30-year-olds have redefined the workplace. Time magazine called them “The Me Me Me Generation” because they want it all. They are known as confident, entitled, and depressed.
Sebastian’s life path number is 7.
Sebastian Villalobos is famous for being a YouTuber. Colombian YouTube sensation who publishes video blogs, challenges, and skits to his VillalobosSebastian channel. He has a second channel, VillalobosSebas, where he posts similar content. He often collaborates with Juanpa Zurita on YouTube. The education details are not available at this time. Please check back soon for updates.
Sebastian Villalobos is turning 26 in
Sebastian was born in the 1990s. The 1990s is remembered as a decade of peace, prosperity and the rise of the Internet. In 90s DVDs were invented, Sony PlayStation was released, Google was founded, and boy bands ruled the music charts.
The 25-year-old American was born in the Year of the Rat and is part of Millennials Generation
According to Chinese Zodiac, Sebastian was born in the Year of the Rat. People born in the Year of the Rat are clever and charming. They are curious, but sometimes too motivated by money.
History of philippine art
Pre-Colonial period refers to the art before the coming of the first colonizers. During those times the Philippines already have an indigenous art tradition that is unique and rich. Culture and traditions were passed on during community gathering through stories, songs, chants, music, and dance.
Rituals are considered the earliest form of theater where it involves music, dance and even literature.
Islamic Colonial Period
Islamic Colonial Period stated in Sulu in the 13th century when Sayyid Abbubakar of Arabia arrived. He is a missionary who facilitated the building of religious schools and the teaching of Arabic reading and writing.
The religion spread in Mindanao and was embraced by the Maranao, Maguindanao, Tausog, Yakan, Samal and Badjao as well as some areas in Palawan.
Spanish Colonial Period
The arrival of Ferdinand Magellan in 1521 marked the beginning of an era of Spanish interest and eventual colonization.
In 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain.
The Spanish Empire began to settle with the arrival of Miguel López de Legazpi from New Spain (present day-Mexico) in 1565 who established the first Spanish settlement in the archipelago, which remained a Spanish colony for more than 300 years. During this time, Manila became the Asian hub of the Manila–Acapulco galleon fleet.
The Lowland Christians were highlighted in this period. All artworks are religious/ devotional in nature.