Egyptian Gold & Silver Bangle

Egyptian Gold & Silver Bangle


Archived Hallmark Examples

These hallmarks were randomly posted on the home page and now archived here.
Hallmarks like these and many more can be found listed in Volume I and II of the
"World Hallmarks" book series, each available here.

Czechoslovakia Silver Hallmark

The triangular shape of this hallmark is unique and identifiable for the region. The 'cross over three hills' design within the triangle was used from 1929-1941 in the area known at that time as Czechoslovakia. The number 4 indicates the item is constructed of the fourth silver standard of the period - 835/1000 parts silver.

French Gold & Platinum Hallmark

The eagle's head hallmark is commonly seen on French made items of gold since 1838. It represents an item that has tested to be constructed of a minimum 18k or 750/1000 parts gold. The dog's head hallmark on the right is the French hallmark for platinum items that test to be a minimum of 950/1000 parts platinum but was not introduced until 1912. These two together indicate that both metals are present in the piece. The order and orientation of the two hallmarks can provide more specifics on the ratios of the different metals that make up the item, as well.

This hallmark was used in Poland from 1920 to 1931 on only silver items. The number 3 indicates the item is of the 3rd silver standard designation used at that time - 800/1000 parts silver. The W on the right side of the female's left facing profile indicates the item was hallmarked in the Warsaw Assay Office. The barrel shape outline tells us that the item marked weighs more than 10 grams.

Czech and Slovak Republic Hallmark


This rooster facing left is an example of a more recent hallmark used by the Czech and Slovak Republics indicating a small domestic gold article of the 3rd standard - 750/1000 parts gold. This hallmark is one of the few Czech and Slovakian hallmarks that has been in use since 1921 that has remained unchanged.


This is an example of the inclusive design of the Soviet Russian hallmark. Contained within the rectangular (actually is a shovel shape) frame shape outline hallmark that exhibits 1) a Soviet hammer and sickle within the star shape, 2) the 583 is the Russian gold standard for 14k gold (583/1000), 3) a Cyrillic symbol to the left of the star represents the assay office where the item was marked - Tbilisi, in use from 1958 until 1994.
The second hallmark on the left, a pointed frame shape, is the maker's mark. The letters to the right are the unique initials of the maker with the number representing the date aspect of the mark. Do you know what is wrong with these stamps and why? Email us, and let us what you think!

This single hallmark is inclusive in style by the fact that this hallmarks reveals that the item was imported to Austria after 1965 (the cocker spaniel image was used after 1965), the item was assayed in Salzberg (the S stands for the Salzberg Assay Office) and is of 14k gold. The number 4 stands for the 4th standard for gold in Austria which is 14k or 585/1000 parts gold.

Iran Hallmark


Often hallmarks are designed with imagery of landmarks, famous people or royalty, or, in this case, treasured national objects as their core image. This hallmark depicts a national treasure - the Pahlavi Crown of Iran. This crown hallmark was used in Iran from 1967 to the late 1970's. It would be stamped on gold that would be either 917/1000 (22k) or 750/1000 (18k), differentiated by the frame.

This sitting boar is a hallmark from Portugal. The frame shape or outline of this hallmark indicates it was assayed in Lisbon between the years of 1886-1938. The II indicates the 2nd standard of silver - 833/1000. The design of this hallmark tells us that the item was a large silver object.

As a left facing ram's head, this French hallmark was used from August 16, 1819 to May 9, 1838. Finding this mark indicates the item has tested with limited warranty by touchstone to be a minimum of 18kt or 750/1000 parts gold. Origin of the mark is Paris, France.



This left facing head of Mercury with the octagonal outline and scalloped corners was marked on large French silver items exported out of France between 1840 and 1879. It represents a metal content of either 750 gold or 950 silver, minimum.


This French owl hallmark has been used since 1893. This owl in an oval frame shape hallmark represents a gold item that is imported from a country whose standards do not comply to French Customs fineness standards. Note the number on the owl's chest and read about it below.
(For more information on this hallmark, consult page 109 of World Hallmarks - Vol. I - Europe)


In a country that has numerous Assay Offices, it is common to use a secondary mark within the actual hallmark to indicate which Assay Office conducted assay testing and hallmarking of that item. In France, there are numerous testing laboratories across the French Departments (states.) Each office has its own unique symbol that they mark within the hallmark's frame or on the core image. The World Hallmark books utilizes a question mark (?) to indicate the location of this variable, if one so exists. In the illustration on the left the symbol is located on the owl's chest. In the photo above that graphic, the symbol is the number 75 which is a nationally recognized region number for Paris, hence representing the Assay Office located in the Paris Area.


This hallmark is another example of a mark that reveals the town where the item was hallmarked. This image reveals, by the large Arabic abbreviation in the center of the oval, that this item was tested and hallmarked in Aleppo, Syria. In the upper left corner of the oval are two digits in Arabic that represent a '2' and a '1' which means the item tested as a minimum of 21k gold.

These hallmark images are copyrighted by HRI ©
Permission to use these images is allowed
only if the image is accompanied by proper recognition.
Example:
"Image from the Hallmark Research Institute"


The Seven Metals of Antiquity

The 7 Metals of Antiquity
1. Gold (ca) 6000BC
2. Copper (ca) 4200BC
3. Silver (ca) 4000BC
4. Lead (ca) 3500BC
5. Tin (ca) 1750BC
6. Iron, smelted (ca) 1500BC
7. Mercury (ca) 750BC

As you can see from the metallurgy timeline above, Gold and Copper were the first metals to be discovered and made up two of the Seven Metals of Antiquity (metals on which our civilisation is based). Whilst Gold was valued for its colour and resistance to tarnish, copper became widely used in weapon making due to its strength.

Early gold deposits were simply hammered together to form larger pieces of Ancient Egyptian jewellery, but copper was a little more troublesome and used to shatter when dropped. This problem led to the process of annealing being discovered which loosened up the cell structure of the metal making it more workable.


Egyptian Gold & Silver Bangle - History

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Ancient Coins & Artifacts:

Antique Bedouin, Egyptian, Saudi Arabian Silver Jewelry & Artifacts
Circa 1850 - 1910 AD

Traded and purchased from Bedouin tribesmen throughout the Middle East and North Africa. Bedouin silver is generally not pure silver. Due to the limited resources of the Arabian deserts, the silver was usually mixed with a high content of base metal.

Bedouin, Saudi Arabia, c. late 19th-early 20th century. Group of brass kohl pots or makeup applicators. Each with a decorative top that unscrews to reveal a long applicator. Nice decorative scrollwork on the body. Measure between 90-115 mm (3 1/2" - 4 1/2") tall. ex-Los Angles, CA private collection. Vert nice and interesting group! #A243722: $125 each


Bedouin, Saudi Arabia, c. late 19th-early 20th century. Group of decorative brass dagger sheaths. Measure between 120-160 mm (4 3/4" - 6 1/4") long.Each with decorated surfaces. Three with hand-pounded brass around an inner wood or leather core, one of cast brass with images of sword-wielding figures on both sides. ex-Los Angles, CA private collection. #A243721: $99 each
(Far right SOLD, other 3 available!)
Bedouin-silver "prayer-box" and bells, 1850-1900 AD. Bedouin silver prayer-box made to be hung on long silk scarf. From the capsule hang four small bells and one small clapper. Piece measures 41 mm across and the bells hang down about 45 mm. #bells155: $110 SOLD

To make a purchase, or for more information, CLICK HERE


Large hollow silver armlet/bangle/bracelet from the Holy Land, 19th Century. Decorated with many silver elements, from tiny silver beaded strings to hollow silver orbs, diamond-shaped designs, etc. Amazing piece! Formed with twisted wire and flat sheet adorned with diamonds and other geometric shapes, a cap on each end joined together with a flange added on the outside. Intact with attractive toning. 4 1/8" (10.6 cm) diameter. Ex Canadian private collection. #0611249-1: $225 SOLD
Holy Land, 19th Century. Nice antique bedouin copper bracelet with incised floral motif. 2 1/4" (5.8 cm) diameter. Nicely toned. Ex Canadian private collection. #0611249-2: $125 SOLD

Psusennes, the Silver Pharaoh with riches that rivalled those of Tutankhamun

In 1940, the Second World War broke out in Western Europe. In the same year, in Tanis, Egypt, thousands of kilometres away from the theatre of war, a French archaeologist by the name of Pierre Montet made a discovery that would rival that made by Howard Carter almost 20 years before. News of this great find, however, did not create such a buzz amongst European society, due to the developing conflict in the continent.

Montet’s discovery on the eve of the Second World War was that of a tomb of a previously little known pharaoh of the 21 st Dynasty of ancient Egypt by the name of Psusennes I. This pharaoh was the third ruler of his dynasty, which came to power at the beginning of the Third Intermediate Period, a period of instability in Egypt. During the early part of the Third Intermediate Period, Egypt’s kingship was fractured, and the country was divided between Upper and Lower Egypt. Whilst the pharaohs of the 21 st Dynasty ruled from Tanis, their power was really limited to the delta of Lower Egypt. Upper Egypt, on the other hand, was the domain of the High Priest of Amun, who was based in Thebes.

Restored view of the tomb from the royal necropolis at Tanis with the tombs of Psusennes I (21st d.), his wife Mutnodjmet, their son Amenemope, another son Ankhefenmut, the general Undjebundjed, and in the antechamber the sarcophagus of Shoshenq II ( Wikimedia Commons )

With the country weakened, it is only logical to expect that the pharaohs of the 21 st Dynasty did not wield much power. The discovery of the tomb of Psusennes, however, disproved this assumption. The most amazing find in Psusennes’ tomb was undoubtedly his coffin of solid silver. Hence, Psusennes has been dubbed as the ‘Silver Pharaoh’.

For the ancient Egyptians, gold was regarded as the flesh of the gods, while silver was thought to be their bones. Unlike gold, however, silver was not readily available in Egypt, and had to be imported from abroad, perhaps from Western Asia and the Mediterranean. This meant that silver was a commodity of even greater value than gold. Thus, Psusennes’ silver coffin reflected the wealth that he commanded. In addition, the metal objects in the tomb, including the silver coffin, are of an extremely high quality, indicating that Psusennes also commanded the manpower needed to produce such luxurious items.

A gold and lapis lazuli collar of king Psusennes I originally found in his tomb at Tanis. ( Wikimedia Commons )

Psusennes’ silver anthropoid coffin was found within a pink granite coffin, which in turn was encased in a granite sarcophagus. Interestingly, the granite sarcophagus once belonged to a 19 th Dynasty pharaoh, Merenptah, who was the successor of Ramesses II. The mummy of Psusennes itself has not survived the ages, and instead of an intact body, Montet only found a pile of bones, black dust, and various funerary items, including a gold mummy board and a spectacular solid gold mask which would have covered the pharaoh’s face.

The lack of preservation is unsurprising, given the environment that Psusennes was buried in. Unlike the arid, desert like environment of the Valley of the Kings in Luxor, much of Lower Egypt consisted of humid, swampy land. Tanis was certainly no exception to this rule. As a result, the mummy of Psusennes would have been destroyed by the water seeping through the ground. In addition, most of the wooden objects have also been destroyed over time. Nevertheless, Montet found Psusennes’ canopic jars, shabtis, and other non-perishable goods around the pharaoh’s sarcophagus. These objects, in addition to the precious objects inside the sarcophagus, is said to rival the treasure of Tuthankhamun himself.

The wealth and power of Psusennes may be attributed to his remarkably long reign, recorded by Manetho to be either 41 or 46 years. Some Egyptologists even suggest that Psusennes reigned for 51 years. Given that Psusennes reigned during a period of political instability, the length of his reign is indeed impressive. Therefore, considering this fact, and the wealth of objects in Psusennes’ tomb, it seems that the situation of Egypt in the Third Intermediate Period, at least during the reign of Psusennes I ought to be reconsidered.


Amateurs Find Largest Ever Viking Gold Hoard in Denmark

Three amateur archaeologists recently found the largest Viking gold hoard ever discovered in Denmark. At 900 grams (1.948 pounds), the hoard consists of seven beautifully worked bracelets, six of gold and one of silver. The silver piece weighs about 90 grams.

“At Sønderskov Museum we are extremely excited about six gold bracelets that were recently handed in to the museum. They were discovered by Poul, Kristen and Marie that make up the metal detector group Team Rainbow,” says the museum’s Facebook page . Their full names are Poul Nørgaard Pedersen, Marie Aagaard Larsen and Kristen Dreiøe.

The group Team Rainbow Power includes Poul Nørgaard Pedersen, Marie Aagaard Larsen and Kristen Dreiøe (Photo by Jørn Larsen)

“One of the bracelets was decorated in the Jelling style – an art style that is thought to be closely related to the upper class in Viking society. This could mean that some of those closest to the king were based in Vejen Municipality.”

The group found the pieces in a field in Vejen, which is in Jutland. Ms. Larsen told the Danish National Museum ( press release in Danish) that she was using her metal detector for just 10 minutes when she struck gold. The Danish National Museum said the “bangles” date to the 900s AD.

“We really felt that we had found the gold at the end of the rainbow when we found the first ring, but as there appeared more up, it was almost unreal,” Ms. Larsen told the museum. Her husband is Dreiøe, and Pedersen is their friend.

Sønderskov Museum curator and archaeologist Lars Grundvad said: “At the museum we had talked about that it could be interesting to explore the area with a metal detector, because a gold chain of 67 grams was found in 1911. But that amateur archaeologists in the course of a few days would find seven Viking bangles, I had in my wildest dreams never imagined.”

He said the seven bracelets are likely connected to the one found in 1911.

The Denmark National Museum’s Viking expert, Peter Pentz said: “To find just one of these rings is huge, so it is something special to find seven. The Viking Age is actually the ‘silver age’ when it comes to hoards. The vast majority of them contain only silver. If there is gold, it is always a small part, not like here, the majority.”

One of the bracelets note the dragon heads. (Photo by Arnold Mikkelsen of the Denmark National Museum )

Mr. Pentz said there’s no doubt in his mind the treasure belonged to Viking elite, and the bracelets may have been used by a chief as alliance gifts, or as rewards or oath rings for his men.

According to Hurstwic.org in an article on Viking social classes, their society was divided into three groups: the middle class karls, the noble jarls and the slaves or bondsmen þræll. People could move from one class to another, the article states, adding:

Above [the karls] were the jarls, the noble class. The stories indicate that jarls lived in fine halls and led refined lives filled with a myriad of activities. But archaeological evidence to back up these details is lacking.

Jarls were distinguished by their wealth, measured in terms of followers, treasure, ships, and estates. The eldest son of the jarl was on the fast track to becoming the next jarl. But, by gaining enough fame and wealth, a karl could become a jarl. The power of a jarl depended upon the goodwill of his supporters. The jarl's essential task was to uphold the security, prosperity, and honor of his followers.

But why did such fabulous wealth end up in the ground? both Pentz and Grundvad ask. Mr. Pentz said perhaps someone buried it with the intent to go back and retrieve it later, but for some reason was unable to.

“It would be interesting to examine the wreck site closer as it might enlighten us as to why this valuable treasure has ended up in the ground,” Mr. Pentz said.

Mr. Grundvad agreed an archaeological survey would gives clues as to why the treasure was buried. He hopes the news of the find will help archaeologists raise money for an excavation, perhaps this fall, of the site, which is being kept secret for now.

Another find, of 750 grams (1.65 pounds), from Vester Vestad in south Jutland, was the largest Viking gold hoard found previously.

Team Rainbow Power will be compensated before the hoard goes on display at the Denmark National Museum.

Featured image: The seven bracelets likely belonged to a Viking nobleman and may have been used as oath rings for his men. (Denmark National Museum photo)

Mark Miller has a Bachelor of Arts in journalism and is a former newspaper and magazine writer and copy editor who's long been interested in anthropology, mythology and ancient history. His hobbies are writing and drawing.


Historic Gold Silver Ratio - Gold vs Silver Ratio History

The following content and historic data are directly sourced from the book called ‘ Silver Bonanza ’ and it was authored by James Blanchard III released in 1995. Well worth picking up a used copy for any long term silver bullion buyers.

Mr. Blanchard was a successful businessman and the driving force behind the ‘re-legalization’ of private gold ownership in the USA in 1975. Only recently have we learned through Wikileaks intercepted US cables that simultaneous efforts were ongoing to discourage US citizenry from buying and saving gold bullion long term (but that is a COMEX and gold price discovery topic for another post).

Below is nearly 5,000 years of gold-silver ratio data:

The more ancient ratios are estimates for long periods of time. Those from 1600 to 1900 (AD) are yearly on periodic averages from Michael G. Mulhall, The Dictionary of Statistics, 4th ed. (London: George Routledge and Sons, 1899) and E.J. Farmer, The Conspiracy Against Silver, or a Plea for Bimetallism (New York: Greenwood Press, 1969 originally published 1886), p. 13.

The other statistics are from Steve Puetz’s Investment Letter, or from our own records. Statistics after 1900 are not yearly averages, but lows or highs that generally did not obtain for long periods. In 1980 the ratio stayed below 20 to 1 for the first two and a half months only and touched under 16 to 1 for only a few days in January.


King Tut's tomb

The tomb of Tutankhamun in Egypt's Valley of the Kings is, arguably, the most famous archaeological discovery ever made. Unearthed in 1922 by a team led by Howard Carter, the tomb was filled with fantastic treasures, including Tutankhamun's death mask, which today is practically an icon.

Carter entered the tomb on Nov. 26, 1922: "As one's eyes became accustomed to the glimmer of light, the interior of the chamber gradually loomed before one, with its strange and wonderful medley of extraordinary and beautiful objects heaped upon one another," he wrote in his diary as he struggled to describe the wonders he saw that day.

The boy king, as Tutankhamun is sometimes called, died in his teens. Analysis of his remains suggests that he suffered from a variety of health problemsand used a cane to walk around. He spent much of his rule (ca. 1332 B.C - 1323 B.C.) trying to restore Egypt's traditional polytheistic religion, something that had been interrupted when his father, the pharaoh Akhenaten, started a revolution that emphasized the primacy of the Aten, the sun-disc.

When Tutankhamun's tomb was discovered, it sparked a media frenzy and a rumor that opening the tomb had unleashed a curse.


Egyptian Gold & Silver Bangle - History

New International Version
He will gain control of the treasures of gold and silver and all the riches of Egypt, with the Libyans and Cushites in submission.

New Living Translation
He will gain control over the gold, silver, and treasures of Egypt, and the Libyans and Ethiopians will be his servants.

English Standard Version
He shall become ruler of the treasures of gold and of silver, and all the precious things of Egypt, and the Libyans and the Cushites shall follow in his train.

Berean Study Bible
He will gain control of the treasures of gold and silver and over all the riches of Egypt, and the Libyans and Cushites will also submit to him.

King James Bible
But he shall have power over the treasures of gold and of silver, and over all the precious things of Egypt: and the Libyans and the Ethiopians shall be at his steps.

New King James Version
He shall have power over the treasures of gold and silver, and over all the precious things of Egypt also the Libyans and Ethiopians shall follow at his heels.

New American Standard Bible
But he will gain control over the hidden treasures of gold and silver, and over all the precious things of Egypt and Libyans and Ethiopians will follow at his heels.

NASB 1995
"But he will gain control over the hidden treasures of gold and silver and over all the precious things of Egypt and Libyans and Ethiopians will follow at his heels.

NASB 1977
“But he will gain control over the hidden treasures of gold and silver, and over all the precious things of Egypt and Libyans and Ethiopians will follow at his heels.

Amplified Bible
He will have power over the treasures of gold and silver and over all the precious things of Egypt, and the Libyans and the Ethiopians will follow in his footsteps.

Christian Standard Bible
He will get control over the hidden treasures of gold and silver and over all the riches of Egypt. The Libyans and Cushites will also be in submission.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
He will get control over the hidden treasures of gold and silver and over all the riches of Egypt. The Libyans and Cushites will also be in submission.

American Standard Version
But he shall have power over the treasures of gold and of silver, and over all the precious things of Egypt and the Libyans and the Ethiopians shall be at his steps.

Aramaic Bible in Plain English
And he shall rule among the treasures of gold and of silver and of every precious thing of Egypt, and the Libyans and the Kushites shall be among his allies

Brenton Septuagint Translation
And he shall have the mastery over the secret treasures of gold and silver, and over all the desirable possessions of Egypt, and of the Libyans and Ethiopians in their strongholds.

Contemporary English Version
and he will take its rich treasures of gold and silver. He will also conquer Libya and Ethiopia.

Douay-Rheims Bible
And he shall have power over the treasures of gold, and of silver, and all the precious things of Egypt: and he shall pass through Libya, and Ethiopia.

English Revised Version
But he shall have power over the treasures of gold and of silver, and over all the precious things of Egypt: and the Libyans and the Ethiopians shall be at his steps.

Good News Translation
He will take away Egypt's hidden treasures of gold and silver and its other prized possessions. He will conquer Libya and Ethiopia.

GOD'S WORD® Translation
He will control gold and silver treasures and all Egypt's treasuries. Libya and Sudan will surrender to him.

International Standard Version
He'll capture treasures of gold, silver, and all the treasures of Egypt, with the Libyans and Cushites at his feet.

JPS Tanakh 1917
But he shall have power over the treasures of gold and silver, and over all the precious things of Egypt and the Libyans and the Ethiopians shall be at his steps.

Literal Standard Version
and he has ruled over treasures of gold and of silver, and over all the desirable things of Egypt, and Lubim and Cushim [are] at his steps.

NET Bible
He will have control over the hidden stores of gold and silver, as well as all the treasures of Egypt. Libyans and Ethiopians will submit to him.

New Heart English Bible
But he shall have control over the treasures of gold and of silver, and over all the riches of Egypt and the Libyans and the Ethiopians shall be at his feet.

World English Bible
But he shall have power over the treasures of gold and of silver, and over all the precious things of Egypt and the Libyans and the Ethiopians shall be at his steps.

Young's Literal Translation
and he hath ruled over treasures of gold and of silver, and over all the desirable things of Egypt, and Lubim and Cushim are at his steps.

2 Chronicles 12:3
with 1,200 chariots, 60,000 horsemen, and countless troops who came with him out of Egypt--Libyans, Sukkites, and Cushites.

Ezekiel 30:4
A sword will come against Egypt, and there will be anguish in Cush when the slain fall in Egypt, its wealth is taken away, and its foundations are torn down.

Ezekiel 30:5
Cush, Put, and Lud, and all the various peoples, as well as Libya and the men of the covenant land, will fall with Egypt by the sword.

Daniel 11:42
He will extend his power over many countries, and not even the land of Egypt will escape.

Daniel 11:44
But news from the east and the north will alarm him, and he will go out with great fury to destroy many and devote them to destruction.

Nahum 3:9
Cush and Egypt were her boundless strength Put and Libya were her allies.

But he shall have power over the treasures of gold and of silver, and over all the precious things of Egypt: and the Libyans and the Ethiopians shall be at his steps.

Jeremiah 46:9,10 Come up, ye horses and rage, ye chariots and let the mighty men come forth the Ethiopians and the Libyans, that handle the shield and the Lydians, that handle and bend the bow…

Ezekiel 38:5 Persia, Ethiopia, and Libya with them all of them with shield and helmet:

Exodus 11:8 And all these thy servants shall come down unto me, and bow down themselves unto me, saying, Get thee out, and all the people that follow thee: and after that I will go out. And he went out from Pharaoh in a great anger.

Judges 4:10 And Barak called Zebulun and Naphtali to Kedesh and he went up with ten thousand men at his feet: and Deborah went up with him.

Verse 43. - But he shall have power over the treasures of gold and of silver, and over all the precious things of Egypt and the Libyans and the Ethiopians shall be at his steps. The rendering of the LXX. is somewhat fuller, "He shall have power over the place of gold and the place of silver, and over all the desire of Egypt, and Libyans and Ethiopians shall be in his multitude." The word translated "treasures" is a late one, but evidently the Septuagint translator had מקם ( maqom ) instead of מִכְמַנֵי . ( michemanay ). Theodotion renders, "And he shall have power over the secret hoards of gold and silver, and over all the desirable things of Egypt, and of Libyans, and of AEthiopians in their fortresses." Theodotion has read מצוריו ( metzorayo ) instead of מִצְעָדָיו ( mitz'adoyo ). The Peshitta rendering is, "And he shall have power over the house of the treasures of gold and silver, and of the pleasant things of Egypt, and the Libyans, and the Cushites (Ethiopians) are his allies." The Vulgate follows a slightly different rendering, "And he shall rule the treasures of gold and silver, and over all the precious things of Egypt through Libya and AEthiopia, too, shall he pass." Having a different reading in the last clause from the Massoretic, the natural Hebrew equivalent for transibit is יַעְבֹר ( ya'bor ) - a word that could scarcelv arise by mistake from that in the text. He shall have power over the treasures of gold and silcer , and over all the precious things of Egypt. Strictly speaking, this never was the case, as Antiochus never wholly conquered Egypt, although in that expedition, in which he had laid siege to Alexandria, he came very near completing his conquest. And the Libyans and the Ethiopians shall beat his steps. This certainly is not true in the sense in which Jerome takes it, "he shall pass through Libya and Ethiopia." Though Antiochus more than once invaded Egypt, he never passed further into Africa. These nationalities are associated with each other e.g. in Jeremiah 46:8, 9, we have, "The Ethiopians and the Libyans that handle the shield." So in Ezekiel 30:5 we have the countries spoken of together. It may merely mean that individuals belonging to these nationalities had joined his armies. This is altogether a more ornate and poetical passage than the rest of this chapter, and gives the feeling of a different hand therefore, probably, it belongs to a time nearer that of Daniel, and contains more of the original prophecy. Professor Fuller remarks on a reference being made to the help Ptolemy received from Cyprus. Cyprus, or Chittim, is referred to in the earlier part of this chapter, but not here. The Lubim and Cushim are contemporary with Edom, Moab, and the sons of Ammon.

He will gain control
וּמָשַׁ֗ל (ū·mā·šal)
Conjunctive waw | Verb - Qal - Conjunctive perfect - third person masculine singular
Strong's 4910: To rule, have dominion, reign

of Egypt,
מִצְרָ֑יִם (miṣ·rā·yim)
Noun - proper - feminine singular
Strong's 4714: Egypt -- a son of Ham, also his descendants and their country in Northwest Africa


Watch the video: Gold Plated Semi Precious Stones Egyptian Mala Sets