Livingstone Hopkins was born in 1846. He worked for the Daily Graphic, New York's first illustrated newspaper. He worked for Joseph Keppler and Puck Magazine before joining James Wales when he decided to start The Judge in 1881.
Hopkins moved to Australia where he worked for the Sydney Bulletin and established himself as the country's leading cartoonist. David Low also worked on the newspaper: "The Bulletin was radical, rampant and free, with an anti-English bias and a preference for a republican form of government. No more imported governors nor doggerel national anthems, no more pompous borrowed generals, foreign titles, foreign capitalists, cheap labour, diseased immigrants, if the Bulletin could help it."
Livingstone Hopkins died in 1927.
The men behind the Bulletin, notably Jules Francois Archibald, a master journalist, and William Macleod, an artist with solid business ability, had made it a major policy of their paper to encourage native Australian talent. The supply of poets and writers began to flow almost immediately. That of comic artists and caricaturists had to be primed at first by a couple of importations, Livingstone Hopkins (Hop) from America, and Phil May from Britain.
The Bulletin was radical, rampant and free, with an anti-English bias and a preference for a republican form of government. No more imported governors nor doggerel national anthems, no more pompous borrowed generals, foreign titles, foreign capitalists, cheap labour, diseased immigrants, if the Bulletin could help it.
Livingstone College Historic District
The Livingstone College Historic District was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1982. Portions of the content on this web page were adapted from a copy of the original nomination document. [&Dagger]
Livingstone College, with its adjoining residential area (Livingstone College Historic District), are an important chapter in the development of black Americans. This is a direct reflection of the educational drive of the black community in the period, including the expression of this drive through the church. The A.M.E. Zion Church, with a long-standing commitment to education, here finally succeeded in founding an institution of higher learning, a black school founded by a black church in a time when black schools were usually paternalistic outreaches of the white community. As an institution, Livingstone has experienced and contributed to the trends in black education, those most notable being its first emphasis on teachers for the race, then in the emphasis on self-help and trades education, and finally on the drive for academic respectability in the early part of this century. Livingstone College and area are as important for the individuals associated with them. From being a project of the Zion leadership, it turned to producing that leadership through its education of teachers and clergy. Its presidents have generally been men of at least important local stature, such as the educator and businessman William Henry Goler. That the school's reputation extended overseas is demonstrated in the career of the important black educator and missionary James E.K. Aggrey of the Gold Coast of Africa. Of the associated individuals, however, the most important is Joseph Charles Price, a black leader momentarily of national stature before his early death of Bright's Disease. A nearly intact College neighborhood of the period, Livingstone College and its nearby community continue to play an important role in the culture of the black community.
Salisbury's Livingstone College has its origins in the Zion Wesley Institute, incorporated in nearby Concord in 1879. The school was founded under the auspices of the African Methodist Episcopal (A.M.E.) Zion Church.
This founding body is an outgrowth of the Wesleyan movement in the United States, beginning with the 1796 formation of Zion Church in New York City to serve the black population of that city. For about twenty years thereafter, the church contracted with the African Methodist Episcopal Church for clerical service and operated under black lay leadership. The Methodist Episcopal Church refused to ordain black clergy, and the black lay leadership began to procure clerical service from the Protestant Episcopal Church after about 1816. Finally, a schism in the Methodist Episcopal Church created a body of secessionist clergy from whom A.M.E. Zion leaders received ordination. Other clerical contracts were ended, and the Church became fully independent.
The A.M.E. Zion commitment to education goes back to its first church in grammar education, but the early record on higher education consists of abortive efforts. Chief among these was Rush University, first proposed in 1849 as Rush Academy, based on 160 acres in New York state contributed for that purpose by Bishop Benjamin Rush of the Zion Church, to whom it had been given by philanthropist Gerrit Smith. This institution was incorporated in 1864 but failed to produce a school. Meanwhile, the church's membership came to center on North Carolina with the missionary work of Bishop James W. Hood (commemorated in Livingstone's Hood Building) and others. The General Conference of 1872, in Charlotte, N.C., authorized the sale of the New York land (an action which was not carried out), and the purchase of land in Fayetteville, N.C., for the school. This effort also failed to bring forth a school. Another such effort was the proposed Zion Hill Collegiate Institute in Middletown, Pennsylvania, which failed in 1871 when the state declined to appropriate support.
The educational aspiration finally found expression in the school that began as Zion Wesley Institute. It all began in November 1875, when A.M.E. Zion pastors Thomas H. Lomax, William H. Thurber and Robert S. Rieves, visiting Concord, N.C., for a general conference of the church, attempted to visit some of their parishioners enrolled in Scotia Seminary for Girls in Concord. They were refused admittance by the president of that school. Humiliated, they met and, seated on a log across the street from the school, determined to found their own school to dispel what they saw as a growing public image of the Zion Church as 'ignorant.' Of these men, it was Thurber, as pastor of the local Concord church, who prepared for the 1877 North Carolina conference a plan to fund such a school. The plan was approved, but by 1879 contributions were still miniscule. At the urging of Bishop Hood and of A.S. Richardson, the agent who had been promoting the school for the Conference, the conference of 1879 voted to open classes in the hope of encouraging support. The Rev. Cicero Richardson Harris (1844-1917), an educator who had been principal of the High School in Charlotte, and the man who had presented Thurber's plan to the Conference in 1877, was made principal of the new school. Classes at the Institute began in December, 1879, across the street from Scotia Seminary, on the site of the aforementioned log. The Concord church had donated seven acres with a farmhouse, largely due to the efforts of Rev. Thurber. The principal, Harris, was along with Hood and Thurber, a trustee of the school, and later was himself an A.M.E. Zion Bishop (1888). The stated goal of the endeavor was "for the training of young men and women for religious and educational work in this country and in Africa."
The first session of school had three students and four teachers on its first day. This increased to twenty pupils when classes resumed, after a recess, in January, 1880.
In assessing Zion Wesley Institute as a development on the North Carolina educational scene, its most important aspect is its heritage as a black institution conceived and operated by black people. It is uncommon in that respect, compared to the usual pattern of black schools being founded by white churches of missionary organizations. In 1879, it shared the North Carolina black educational load with Barber Scotia (Presbyterian, founded 1867) referred to above, Bennett (Greensboro, Methodist, 1873), Johnson C. Smith (then Biddle, Charlotte, Presbyterian, 1867), St. Augustine's (Raleigh, Episcopal, 1867), Shaw (Raleigh, Baptist, 1865), and Fayetteville State College (1867).
The school struggled in Concord, despite the support of the local A.M.E. Zion Church. Very little was collected by the Conference for the school, and the Rush University property in Fayetteville had to be sold to provide operating funds. The school held classes for its second year in fall 1880, under A.S. Richardson, who was a nephew of C.R. Harris and operated for eight months until it closed from lack of funds.
Bishop Hood and supporters of the school were, however, seeking to improve its situation. In the course of this effort, Hood became acquainted with Joseph Charles Price, whom Hood selected as delegate to an 1881 Ecumenical Council in London. While in passage, Hood convinced Price, a powerful orator, to undertake a speaking tour of England for Zion Wesley Institute. Price agreed and, successful, returned to North Carolina in 1882 with $10,000 for the school. Price was elected President of the school, a post he held until his death.
Joseph Charles Price (1854-1893) was an important leader of the black community in his time, a career of possibly national stature cut off by his early death of Bright's Disease. Much of the credit for the survival of Livingstone College must be given to Price, as a fluent and persuasive orator, educator and religious leader whom Josephus Daniels of the Raleigh News and Observer called "the most remarkable Negro I have known." Educated in the schools of New Bern, N.C., where his family moved in 1863 to be behind the Union lines, he became a teacher in Wilson in 1871. He attended Shaw University briefly in 1873 and was converted to Christianity. He earned the A.B. degree from Lincoln University, graduating as valedictorian in 1879, and earned his B.D. there in 1881. He had been licensed to preach in 1876. He was engaged in the North Carolina temperance movement briefly before his trip to London. Price delivered the commencement address at the famous Tuskeegee Institute on two occasions, and in 1890 he addressed the National Education Association, speaking on behalf of Negro education. In 1888 he turned down an offer of the post of U.S. Consul at Liberia, convinced that he could do more important work at Livingstone. In the year of Price's death, Frederick Douglass endorsed him as the best hope of the black population.[12A]
Upon Price's 1882 return, Zion Wesley Institute moved to Salisbury, where A.S. Richardson had generated sufficient enthusiasm in the white community to bring forth a contribution of $1,000. Bishop Hood related in an 1910 retrospective that in addition to the contribution, Salisbury offered easier access from the western part of North Carolina and no competition from other local black schools. The trustees purchased 40 acres and a house from James Gray for $4,600, $900 less than the asking price, with the help of the city's Mayor. Classes resumed in October, 1882. In its new location the school had only three teachers, three students, a matron, and its one building.
Within a year, however, enrollment approached one hundred. The Catalogue of 1883 lists Price, Harris, Edward Moore and William Henry Goler as Professors, with two other teachers. Moore and Goler, classmates of Price's at Lincoln, shared with him an ambition to found a school while there. Moore was to remain with the college until his death in 1927 in the leadership roles of secretary to the faculty and vice-president. Goler (1846-1939) served as second president of the college (1893-1917).
The school quickly had a serious housing shortage that was temporarily met when "Extra buildings were rented and adapted to hold as many as possible, though at great sacrifice of comfort and convenience on the part of students and of trouble and expense on the part of the faculty." Standards were raised, but enrollment remained generally up. In 1883 a two-story frame structure was contributed by the Board of Bishops, and a large contribution by C.P. Huntington, a California philanthropist, covered much of the cost of expanding the original building, now named Huntington Hall. Students now came from 75 towns in North Carolina and from twelve states, including Rhode Island, Pennsylvania and Massachusetts.
The curriculum in 1883 consisted of a Normal Course for teachers, a Theological Course for future clergy, and a Classical Course of language and "belle lettres." A Preparatory Department prepared students for the Normal Course. Classes included History, English, Grammar, Geography, Arithmetic and First Lessons in Latin.
Price's eleven-year tenure saw the school struggle, survive, and grow. Zion Wesley College in 1885. That same year the board of trustees voted to change the name of the school to Livingstone College in honor of the noted English missionary, explorer and philanthropist, and the change was enacted by the state in 1887. Physical expansion in the first decade was rapid, and included two buildings that still stand. Dodge Hall was completed as a men's dormitory, with classrooms on the first floor in 1886. it was named for William Earl Dodge (1805-1883), a New York dry goods merchant active in the temperance movement and Republican politics. He was a supporter of Price, and had financed Price's education and London trip.
Ballard Hall was constructed in 1887 to house the Industrial Department. This structure was a gift of Stephen F. Ballard (1816-1901), a New York capitalist impressed with Price's oratory in an A.M.E. Zion church in Asheville in 1882. Hopkins Hall for women, which housed the Stanford Seminary branch of the College, was completed in 1886 but no longer stands.
In 1884, Price stated that "Livingstone College stands before the world today as the most remarkable evidence of self-help among Negroes of this country." while the College itself was a racial self-help project, this emphasis was very evident as well in the practical aspects of the College's educational program. From 1885, the Industrial Department grew in importance under W.H. Goler. Teaching numerous crafts, it filled Ballard Hall with carpentry, shoemaking and printing classes. This combination of training "head, heart and hand," remained important at Livingstone until about 1920, and included the absorption of the East Tennessee Industrial School in 1902.
Contemporaneous with the development of Livingstone was the growth of a closely-related adjacent residential community. The college was in the countryside when it was established, and Price and Goler formed a partnership to buy and develop the surrounding land. Goler acted as agent, and with his building expertise from earlier apprenticeship as a brick mason, he pursued a second career as a contractor here and in other nearby cities, being thus responsible for much of the local construction. Monroe Street was laid off in August, 1885.
Homes in the neighborhood were built for people intimately associated with Livingstone's earliest days. One of the first houses was that of Joseph Price himself (828 West Monroe Street), a Victorian structure constructed in 1884. A home (802 W. Monroe Street) for the Rev. Cicero Harris was completed in 1889. In 1890 the John Dancy house (814 W. Monroe Street) was finished. Dancy, from Tarboro, N.C., was instructor of printing at the college and editor of the A.M.E. Zion publications Star of Zion and A.M.E. Zion Review an important member of the black community. These homes survive from that period, and others were added later, again largely for Livingstone personnel.
William Henry Goler was named to replace Price upon the latter's death in 1893, and held the position until 1917. Mentioned above as Professor and Head of the Industrial Department as well as real estate developer, he was a multi-faceted individual whose importance to Livingstone perhaps equalled that of Price. A native of Nova Scotia, Goler began his career as an apprentice bricklayer and plasterer, then entered Lincoln University, earning an A.B. in 1878 and the B.D. in 1881. Coming to Livingstone with his classmate Price, he began his double career as educator and contractor. Younger contemporaries describe him as a father figure with a proper English accent and as a strict disciplinarian, economical and dynamic. As president, he presided over the most constructive period in the school's early educational development, consolidating Price's legacy. His home, beside that of Price, was torn down.
During Goler's term, the college grew both physically and educationally. Probably the most important addition to the campus was the Carnegie Library, a gift of philanthropist and industrialist Andrew Carnegie. The library was completed in 1908. The Hood Building, dedicated in 1910 to hold the Hood Theological Seminary, was the next permanent addition. The third major structure which survives was Goler Hall (1917), a dormitory for young women. Other construction in his term consisted of an addition to Ballard Hall in 1900 and its reconstruction after storm damage in 1905, and the construction of a chapel/auditorium in 1902. The Livingstone curriculum remained by intention a mixture of religious instruction, industrial and craft studies, and liberal arts and classical studies. The 1895 Catalogue listed Theological (6 students), Classical (11), Normal (65), Preparatory (50), and Industrial Departments (8), for a total of 148 students (some with double majors) from twelve states. A 1902 Annual records that 4,520 students had attended the school in its twenty years at Salisbury. A military department had been founded, literary societies and the YMCA were active, and the faculty had received full annual salaries for the first time that year. The Industrial Department was prominently listed in the catalog as early as 1888, this in accordance with Price's wish to develop a balanced program to compete with such schools as Hampton Institute as well as meet the A.M.E. Zion Church's need for clergy and teachers. Industrial and trade self-help education was a strong trend in black education of the period. As part of this emphasis, the College absorbed East Tennessee Industrial School in 1902. To meet the Church's requirements, Goler moved to strengthen the theological course as well. In fall, 1903, it was organized as a school itself, and named for Bishop James Walker Hood. By 1905, a Music Course was also added.
One other figure of this period deserves special mention. James Emman Kwegyir Aggrey (1875-1927), an outstanding Gold Coast mission student and teacher, came to Livingstone College in 1898 and graduated with a B.A. with highest honors in 1902. He immediately became a student professor, then professor and registrar/financial secretary of the school, posts which he held until 1920. He served on two Phelps-Stokes Commissions studying the African situation, and was completing his doctorate at Columbia at the time of his death. Referred to as Aggrey of Africa for his descent from an African royal family, his intellectual capacities set a high standard at the college.
Student life at Livingstone is mirrored in the pages of the 1905 Catalog. Religious exercises were daily, morning and evening, with Sunday School and Wednesday evening prayer meetings. The Bible was a regular course of study. A regular uniform for men and women, not an original feature of the school, was now required. Josephine Price Sherrill, daughter of Joseph Price, recalls that these uniforms were of blue skirts and white blouses for the women and navy blue trousers and high collar jackets, with black trim, for the men. Students were to be over twelve years old, with a certificate of good moral character. The College had a grammar school until, 1905-1906, and students could enter as early as they could read and write for three years of elementary school, three years in the grammar department, and four years of High School, then continue to College. Standards were strict, with failure in one subject bringing a repeat of the entire year in the upper grades. Social life was closely regulated by the fear-inspiring Matron Tucker, who would watch the students in their Friday night "socials" from the balcony of the chapel/auditorium, to monitor their behavior. The men and women students were forbidden to mix casually on or off campus, and could receive a public reprimand in chapel service from Dr. Goler for doing so. Goler was also not adverse to using the paddle for discipline, and male students would be held over a barrel kept for the purpose in his office for this punishment. Mrs. Tucker disciplined the women. Most students were poor, and much of the college staff was made up of working students. For all this, the College was committed to its students, the faculty's concern for their well-being creating a feeling of family. Besides the socials, literary programs were held featuring orations, and Lyceum programs brought prominent black performers to campus, expanding the school's offerings. Highlights of the year, though, came to be the Thanksgiving football game and the Easter Monday basketball game, both against arch-rival Biddle (now J.C. Smith).
During this period the Monroe Street district was expanded by the building of several college-related homes. The P.A. Stevenson house (714 W. Monroe Street) was completed in 1904. Stevenson (d.1904), was a shoemaking instructor at the College, and his wife taught at the Lincoln School. The Hannum House (924 W. Monroe Street) was constructed in 1904 for William H. Hannum (1869-1942), who taught mathematics at Livingstone for 41 years before his death. Also built in 1904 was the Madison-Miller House (1008 W. Monroe Street) for A.M.E. Zion Church Bishop Elisha L. Madison (1876-1946). James E.K. Aggrey's home (700 W. Monroe Street) was completed in 1912. In 1916 came the home of William Bentley Crittenden (928 W. Monroe Street), mathematics professor from 1900, manager of the Athletics Association, and Director of the Choral Union, while the Wallace-Hall House (912 W. Monroe Street), constructed in 1917 for W.H. Wallace, a Salisbury dentist, was later sold to Professor Louico H. Hall (1879-1964). All of these homes still stand.
Also of importance in the Monroe Street section is Moore's Chapel, an A.M.E, Zion church formally established in 1901, with a sanctuary on land purchased from Goler. The church has maintained a close relationship with Livingstone, moving to its present location shortly after its establishment. Instructor T.W. Wallace and Prof. Aggrey are among Livingstone staff and students who have served as pastors of the congregation, and it met for two years after 1917 in the Hood Building after a fire destroyed their building. The student body, which had walked across town to Soldier's Memorial Church, began attending Moore's Chapel after it appeared, as an offshoot of Soldier's Memorial.
Goler retired as president in 1917, and was replaced by Daniel Cato Suggs (1866-1936), former Chairman of Natural Science and Higher Mathematics at Livingstone and Vice President of Savannah State College in Georgia. Suggs kept the college involved in teacher education with summer schools, and added a commercial curriculum, brick-veneered the now-gone Chapel, enlarged Ballard Hall and built the Price tomb. His term is under a cloud, however, coming at a time when black colleges were losing support due to a 1916 U.S. Office of Education report criticizing their standards.
Suggs was replaced in 1925 by William Johnson Trent, Sr. (1873-1963), who overhauled the curriculum and secured Livingstone College state (1927), and later Southern Association (1945), "A" ratings, restoring the school's academic credibility. The heart of Trent's reforms was the sweeping away of the old departmental scheme and the establishment of a College of Liberal Arts and Sciences with up-to-date standards for the B.A. and B.S. degrees in Language, Natural Science, Social Science, and Education. In 1927 the theological and teacher training departments were discontinued and extension courses added. Home economics studies ceased in 1929. The last building of the early period, Price Memorial, was begun in 1930. Completed in 1943, this monument to the school's first president houses Livingstone's administrative offices. Four other major building projects followed. In 1932 the High School was phased out, the curriculum was again rearranged in 1933, and Hood Seminary reappeared in 1939. Trent retired in 1957, and his 1928 Monroe Street home (918 W. Monroe St.) still stands.
By the end of the early period, Livingstone College, although still small, had an impressive physical plant to tide it over the depression period. With Price Memorial Building's 13-year construction, the next structure was a 1947 gymnasium. As a class "B" school of the Southern Association of Schools and Colleges in 1937, the College reported a student population of 215 in April and 184 in December of that year.
Trent was succeeded as president in 1957 by John Henry Brockett (1915- ) who served in an interim capacity until Samuel Edward Duncan took over in 1958. Duncan was followed in 1968 by another interim president, Victor Julius Tulane until the 1969 appointment of F. George Shipman. The period saw increasing expansion of the institution's program with thirteen new structures and annexes since 1955, located predominantly behind the historic area. Recent additions to the campus include Harris Hall, a men's dormitory erected in 1955 with funds raised by the United Negro College Fund the Mary Reynolds Babcock Hall, a residence hall for women built in 1962 the Aggrey Student Union, completed in 1962 the Walls Heritage House, a gift from A.M.E. Zion Bishop and Mrs. W.J. Walls, dedicated in 1969 for the study of Negro and African life and literature and Dancy Memorial Hall, a men's residence hall completed in 1972.
At present (1980), Livingstone contains 22 buildings on 272 acres, and has a student body of 921. Faculty number 55.2 full-time equivalent positions. The school still is a part of and receives support from the A.M.E. Zion Church, amounting to $700,000 of the current $6,000,000 annual budget. The school has a small endowment, but its chief budget component, $2,000,000, is presently  Federal program funding. Students come from 23 states and 7 foreign countries to pursue an education in areas ranging from Childhood Education to Engineering to Music.
As Livingstone approaches its centennial, it can look back on a rich and varied history. Founded to support the A.M.E. Zion Church's missionary outreach, it can boast of many clergy of all ranks in the church. It was equally involved in the black self-help movement of the late 19th century, and in the collegiate drive for academic respectability which characterized the early twentieth. The school may take special note of its fully black heritage, this itself a symbol of self-help in a time when most black colleges were being developed by white missionaries. Dedicated leaders like Harris, Goler and Aggrey can provide an example for modern students, while the prominence of Price as a black leader may be a source of special pride. Livingstone, and its surrounding community, have provided a special atmosphere for those associated with it for 100 years. This atmosphere is still present in this very alive Livingstone College Historic District.
- J.W. Hood, One Hundred Years of the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church. (New York: A.M.E. Zion Book Concern, 1895), 56-64.
- William J. Walls, The African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church. (Charlotte: A.M.E, Zion Publishing House, 1974), 301-303.
- J.W. Hood, "The Origin of Livingstone College," in S.G. Atkins and Thomas Walker Wallace, eds., The Twenty-fifth Annual Commencement and Quarter Centennial of Livingstone College. (Salisbury: Livingstone Press, 1910), 29.
- Walls, Zion Church, 305-308.
- Louise M. Rountree, An Index to. The Bishops of the A.M.E. Zion Church (np, np, 1963), 35.
- Zion Wesley Institute, Catalogue. (Greensboro: Thomas, Reece and Company, 1883), 6.
- Walls, Zion Church, 308.
- Carnegie Commission on Higher Education, From Isolation to Mainstream. (Hightstown, N.J.: McGraw-Hill, 1971), 72, 76.
- Louise M. Rountree, . Administrative Profiles for the Centennial Celebration. (Salisbury: Livingstone Press, 1980), unpaginated.
- Walls, Zion Church, 309.
- Walls, Zion Church, 309-310.
- Josephus Daniels, Tar Heel Editor (Chapel Hill: UNC Press, 1939), 196. Daniel goes on to say that Price "was an orator who charmed audiences, white and black. /and/had a mind capable of mastering obtuse learning. He was a powerful influence for good among his race and his early death was deplored by both races."
Carnegie Commission on Higher Education. From Isolation to Mainstream. Hightstown, N.J.: McGraw Hill, 1971.
Brawley, James S. The Rowan Story 1753-1953. Salisbury: Rowan Printing Company, 1953.
Daniels, Josephus. Tar Heel Editor. Chapel Hill: UNC Press, 1939.
Hood, J.W. One Hundred Years of the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church. New York: A.M.E. Zion Book Concern, 1895.
Hood, J.W. "The Origin of Livingstone College" in Atkins, S.G. and Thomas Walker Wallace, eds., The Twenty-fifth Annual Commencement and Quarter Centennial of Livingstone College. Salisbury: Livingstone Press, 1910.
Interview with Abna Aggrey Lancaster, March 10, 1980.
Interview with Josephine Price Sherrill, March 11, 1980.
Laws of North Carolina: 1885, Chapter 25, pp.770-773 1887, Chapter 49, p.866 (Private).
Interview with F. George Shipman, March 10, 1980.
Livingstone College. Annual Catalog, Salisbury: Livingstone Press, 1927.
Livingstone College. Catalogue. Greensboro: Thomas Brothers, Power Book and Job Printers, 1888.
Livingstone College. Catalogue. Salisbury: Livingstone College Press, nd. (1894-1895)
Livingstone College. Catalogue. Salisbury: Livingstone College Press, 1899.
Livingstone College. Catalogue. Salisbury: Livingstone College Press, 1905.
Livingstone College. Catalog 1973, 74, 75. np: np, nd.
Logan, Frenise A. The Negro in North Carolina. Chapel Hill: UNC Press, 1964.
McCuiston, Fred. Higher Education of Negroes. Nashville, Tenn.: Southern Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools, 1933.
Marquis-Who's Who, Inc. Who Was Who in America, Historical Volume 1607-1896. Chicago: A.N. Marquis Co., 1963.
Meier, August. Negro Thought in America, 1880-1915. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1978.
New York Times, August 11, 13, 1901.
Penry, Elisha G. The History of Moore's Chapel African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church. unpublished typescript, n.d.
Rountree, Louise M. . Administrative Profiles for the Centennial Celebration. Salisbury: Livingstone Press, 1980.
Rountree, Louise M. A Brief Chronological History of Black Salisbury-Rowan. Salisbury: n.p., 1976.
Rountree, Louise M. An Index to. The Bishops of the A.M.E. Zion Church. n.p.: n.p., 1963.
Salisbury Evening Post, October 2, 1975, August 23, 1979.
Senior Class of Livingstone College. Livingstone College Annual. Salisbury: Livingstone Press, May 24th, 1902.
Sketch Book of Livingstone College and East Tennessee Industrial School. Salisbury: Livingstone Press?, 1903.
Smith, Edwin W. Aggrey of Africa. Freeport, N.Y.: Books for Libraries Press, 1971.
Walls, William J. The African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church. Charlotte: A.M.E. Zion Publishing House, 1974.
Walls, William J. Joseph Charles Price. Boston: Christopher Publishing House, 1943.
Zion Wesley Institute. Catalogue. Greensboro: Thomas, Reece and Company, 1883.
Zion Wesley Institute. Catalogue. Greensboro: Thomas, Reece and Company, 1885.
The compilation of a history of any country is a serious matter, and should not be entered upon rashly. Before undertaking the present work, therefore, the author deliberated for twenty-nine years and six months, and then, having consulted the best legal as well as medical authorities, entered upon the task with fear and trembling. He hired a vacant lot on Nassau street, and fenced it in, and there, surrounded by the paraphernalia of literature and art, he went to work with pen and pencil to jot down the leading incidents of American history to the best of a somewhat defective memory.
The illustrations have been our chief care, though the letter-press will be found equally reliable. It was our original plan to flavor these pages with a spice of romance, but after a prolonged altercation with Mr. Carleton, our publisher, we decided to adhere strictly to facts. If the reader should happen to detect any slight anachronism in this work, or has reason to suspect that the unities have been lost sight 12 of in a single instance, he will please notify us as early as possible.
When it first became noised abroad that we contemplated bringing out an illustrated history of the United States we were deluged with letters from a host of well-disposed persons, such as Thomas Carlyle, James Parton, Wendell Phillips and others of more or less literary ability, offering to “write up” to our pictures. Mr. Carlyle said he could do it nights. But the public was not to be trifled with, so we resolved to put our shoulder to the literary as well as the artistic wheel, as it were, and we flatter ourselves we have demonstrated in these pages that truth is more of a stranger than fiction.
Our task is completed, and we lay aside pen and pencil, feeling that we have done the State a service and that a great load is off our mind. If the work we have just completed shall run through several editions we shall feel that the State has proved sufficiently grateful, and that a still greater load is off our mind.
(7 July 1846, USA - 21 August 1927, Australia)
Livingston Hopkins, also known as Hop, was born in Bellefontaine, Ohio in 1846. Hopkins worked for the Daily Graphic, New York's first illustrated newspaper. For this newspaper, he made 'Professor Tigwissel's Burglar Alarm' on 11 September 1875. With 17 successive pictures that filled a full page, this was the first newspaper cartoon strip. Hopkins additionally worked for Puck Magazine before joining James Wales at The Judge in 1881.
In 1883, he moved to Sydney, Australia with his wife and three children to work for the Sydney Bulletin as a staff cartoonist. He stayed with this magazine for 30 years, becoming part-owner and getting very famous for his witty political cartoons. In 1904, a collection titled 'On the Hop' was published. Hopkins quit drawing for the Bulletin in 1913, by which time he had become a director. Hopkins pursued his many interests, including painting, violin making, gardening and bowling until his death in 1927.
Reexamining Hopkins History
As America’s first research university, Johns Hopkins is committed to the pursuit of knowledge and to using the tools of academic research to understand and examine our own past. Under the auspices of Hopkins Retrospective and through our libraries and museums, Johns Hopkins University has undertaken several efforts to do so to date.
Through this initiative, we seek to explore and publicly present archival evidence related to Johns Hopkins University and the legacy of slavery.
A careful look at the history of our founder, Johns Hopkins, and his family
In a message on December 9, 2020, Johns Hopkins University and Medicine leadership shared with the Hopkins community our archival discovery of government census records that state Mr. Hopkins was the owner of enslaved people in 1840 and 1850, and perhaps earlier. By 1860, there are no enslaved persons listed in his home.
The archival record we are piecing together indicates that Johns Hopkins was a complex person. A businessman and philanthropist whose bequest transformed higher education and accessible healthcare in America, a slaveholder who operated in a society that relied heavily on the institution of slavery, and a man reported at his death to have held anti-slavery views.
Historians have discovered few documents written by Johns Hopkins, and no historian has written a comprehensive biography of him. As far as we know, his personal papers were destroyed prior to his death or perhaps surviving records were lost. For many years, our institutions have invoked a narrative we now know to be erroneous that tells the story of Johns’ Quaker parents manumitting their enslaved individuals, but we did not previously scrutinize that account, nor did we fully investigate the subsequent history of the man or his family members. We are now taking a careful look at the widely accepted narrative of Johns Hopkins, a book of remembrances written by his grand-niece, Helen Thom, and we are beginning a journey of further research and understanding.
We will continue to pursue our research into his life in order to arrive at a more complete and truthful picture.
Johns Hopkins Biographical Archive
We are actively building a growing collection of documentary evidence about the life of our founder, Johns Hopkins and his family, and their relationship with the institution of slavery.
Hard Histories at Hopkins
Professor Martha S. Jones is leading a scholarly initiative to understand and acknowledge our institution’s past history of discrimination on a number of different grounds, focused first and foremost on race.
The Work Ahead
- We are at the beginning of learning more about Johns Hopkins’ life as we develop a deeper, more extensive archival record. We hope that others – our students, faculty, and staff as well as our neighbors in Baltimore – will help contribute to this work of gathering and sharing documents and interpreting them. Please reach out if you know of relevant archival collections, and send your comments and suggestions to [email protected]
Hopkins history advisory committee
- Professor Martha S. Jones will lead a group of senior colleagues—including Sheridan Libraries Dean Winston Tabb, incoming KSAS Dean Chris Celenza, and Director of the Institute of the History of Medicine Jeremy Greene—to propose a set of initiatives that explore the historical connections to slavery of Johns Hopkins, the Hopkins family, and other important figures associated with our institution’s founding. This multi-year project, closely linked to the Hopkins Retrospective, will encompass a broad range of scholarly activities and opportunities for direct participation and engagement, such as lectures and forums, academic courses, community conversations, commemorative events, and public art.
- , President of Johns Hopkins University , CEO of Johns Hopkins Medicine , President of the Johns Hopkins Health System , Society of Black Alumni Presidential Professor and Professor of History and SNF Agora Institute , Sheridan Dean of University Libraries, Archives & Museums , incoming Dean of the Krieger School of Arts & Sciences , Director of the Institute of the History of Medicine , Hopkins Retrospective Program Manager
Moderator: Katrina Caldwell, Vice Provost for Diversity and Inclusion and Chief Diversity Officer
Universities Studying Slavery
- Johns Hopkins University joined the Universities Studying Slavery (USS) consortium in 2020 to collaborate with and learn from peer institutions.
Frequently asked questions
Johns Hopkins Hospital Colored Orphan Asylum (1875-1924)
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
Giving to Others
As he grew older, Hopkins looked for ways to use his wealth to benefit others, since he had no wife or children to inherit his money. He arranged to leave much of his money and property, such as rental houses, warehouses and stores, to surviving relatives and three of his servants. But his legacy planning did not stop there.
No one knows how he came up with the idea to found a university linked to a hospital, though there is ample evidence he turned to friends for advice. He may have been influenced by fellow philanthropist Peabody, who had founded the famed Peabody Institute in Baltimore in 1857.
Hopkins’ vision was a hospital that would be linked with a medical school, which in turn was to be part of a university, a radical idea that later became the model for all academic medical institutions.
He appointed a 12-member board of trustees, comprising local thought leaders, to carry out his vision. They, in turn, created an environment that attracted top educators and medical professionals to direct the university and hospital. By 1867, Hopkins had arranged for his bequest to be split evenly between the two institutions.
In his last months of life, Hopkins laid out clearly what he had in mind for his hospital. Here are some details from his explanatory letter to his trustees:
“It is my wish that the plan…shall provide for a hospital, which shall, in construction and arrangement, compare favorably with any institution of like character in this country or in Europe…
“The indigent sick of this city and its environs, without regard to sex, age, or color, who may require surgical or medical treatment, and who can be received into the hospital without peril to the other inmates, and the poor of this city and state, of all races, who are stricken down by any casualty, shall be received into the hospital, without charge.… You will also provide for the reception of a limited number of patients who are able to make compensation for the room and attention they may require…you will thus be enabled to afford to strangers, and to those of our own people who have no friends or relatives to care for them in sickness, and who are not objects of charity, the advantage of careful and skillful treatment.
“It will be your especial duty to secure for the service of the hospital, surgeons and physicians of the highest character and of the greatest skills…
“I wish the large grounds surrounding the hospital buildings…to be so laid out with trees and flowers as to afford solace to the sick and be an ornament to the section of the city in which the grounds are located…
“It is my special request that the influences of religion should be felt in and impressed upon the whole management of the hospital but I desire, nevertheless, that the administration of the charity shall be undisturbed by sectarian influences, discipline, or control. In all your arrangements in relation to the hospital, you will bear constantly in mind that it is my wish and purpose that the institution should ultimately form a part of the medical school of that university for which I have made ample provision by my will …”
A Comic History of the United States
Christopher Columbus was born at Genoa in Italy, a country chiefly famous for its talented organ-grinders. The youthful Christopher soon made the melancholy discovery that he had no talent in that direction. His tastes then rather took a scientific turn. This was a sad blow to his fond parents, who did hope their son would take a turn at the hurdy-gurdy instead.
His aged father pointed out that Science 19was low and unprofitable, Geology was a humbug, Meteorology and Madness were synonymous terms, and Astronomy ought to be spelled with two S’s.
In vain his doting mother gently sought to woo him to loftier aims, and, in the fondness of a mother’s love, even presented him with a toy barrel-organ which played three bars of “Turn, sinner, turn,” in the hope that it might change the whole current of his life but the undutiful child immediately traded it off to another boy for a bamboo fishing rod, out of which he constructed a telescope, and he used to lie upon his back for hours, far, far into the night, catching cold and scouring the heavens with this crude invention. One night his sorrow-stricken parents found him thus, and they knew from that moment that all was lost!
Our hero took to the water naturally very early in life. Let the youth of America remember this. Let the youth of every land who contemplate discovering new worlds remember that strong drink is fatal to the discovery business for it is our candid opinion, that, had Christopher Columbus taken to, say strong coffee in his very earliest infancy, the chances are that America would never have had a Centennial, and these pages had never been written. Two circumstances which the stoutest heart among us cannot for a moment contemplate without a shudder.
When Columbus reached man’s estate he became a hard student, and spent the most of his time in his library,
“Reading books that never mortal Ever dared to read before.”
His mind, consequently, soared beyond the pale of mere existing facts and circumstances, and sought to fold its eager pinions on lofty roosting places yet undiscovered.
And thus it was, that, after revolving the matter in his mind for forty years or more, Columbus arrived at the conclusion that the earth was round, not flat, (as was the popular belief at that time,) and boldly said so in round terms. People called him a lunatic, an original character, and other harsh names, and otherwise pooh-pooh’d the idea.
But Columbus not only adhered to his theory, but went so far as to assert that by sailing due west from Europe you would, if you kept on sailing, bring up somewhere in eastern Asia.
“Oh, come now, Christopher! really, this 25is going to far!” is what public opinion said, and when our hero petitioned the Italian Congress to fit out an expedition and let him prove his theory, it magnanimously offered to set him up in business with a first-class barrel-organ and an educated monkey cashier on condition of his leaving the country once for all but Columbus, expressing his regret for his lack of musical ability, declined this generous offer and turned with a sigh to other governments for assistance. Finally, after fifteen years of effort, he succeeded in convincing Queen Isabella of Spain that there was an undiscovered country beyond the seas, overflowing with milk and honey, which it would be worth while to “work up.” He proved his theory with the aid of an egg, (which he made stand on end,) 26an old Boston City Directory, and a ground plan of Philadelphia, (see school books,) and demonstrated to the good lady’s entire satisfaction that she might realize largely by fitting out an expedition and let him at its head go and discover it.
So conclusive were these arguments to the mind of Queen Isabella that the good old soul allowed him to fit out an expedition at his own expense, and gave him carte blanche to discover America as much as he wanted to. We have seen how well he succeeded. All this took place three hundred and eighty-three years, four months, and five days ago, but it seems to us but yesterday.
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The university takes its name from 19th-century Maryland philanthropist Johns Hopkins, an entrepreneur with Quaker roots who believed in improving public health and education in Baltimore and beyond.
Previously adopted accounts portray Johns Hopkins as an early abolitionist whose father had freed the family’s enslaved people in the early 1800s, but recently discovered records offer strong evidence that Johns Hopkins held enslaved people in his home until at least the mid-1800s. Additional information about the university’s investigation of this history is available on the Hopkins Retrospective website.
Mr. Hopkins, one of 11 children, made his fortune in the wholesale business and by investing in emerging industries, notably the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, of which he became a director in 1847. In his will, he set aside $7 million to establish a hospital and affiliated training colleges, an orphanage, and a university. At the time, it was the largest philanthropic bequest in U.S. history.
Johns Hopkins University opened in 1876 with the inauguration of our first president, Daniel Coit Gilman. He guided the opening of the university and other institutions, including the university press, the hospital, and the schools of nursing and medicine. The original academic building on the Homewood campus, Gilman Hall, is named in his honor.
“Our simple aim is to make scholars, strong, bright, useful, and true,” Gilman said in his inaugural address.
In the speech, he defined the model of the American research university, now emulated around the globe. The mission he described then remains the university’s mission today:
To educate its students and cultivate their capacity for lifelong learning, to foster independent and original research, and to bring the benefits of discovery to the world.
Or, summed up in a simple but powerful restatement of Gilman’s own words: “Knowledge for the world.”
An ongoing effort to expand our understanding of the history of Johns Hopkins and weave that history into the university experience
Reexamining the history of the university's founder, Johns Hopkins
For most of the last century, Johns Hopkins was believed to be an early and staunch abolitionist whose father, a committed Quaker, had freed the family’s enslaved people in 1807. But over the last several months, research being done as a part of the Hopkins Retrospective project has caused the institution to question this narrative. The university now has government census records showing Mr. Hopkins as the owner of one enslaved person listed in his household in 1840 and four enslaved people listed in 1850. By the 1860 census, there are no enslaved persons listed in the household.
More information is available on the Hopkins Retrospective website.
No. The university and hospital were opened in 1876 and 1889 respectively, after the death of our founder Johns Hopkins and after the end of the Civil War and the adoption of the 13th, 14th and 15th Amendments.
Did enslaved people owned by Mr. Hopkins work at the university or help construct university or hospital buildings?
No. The university and hospital were founded after the death of our founder Johns Hopkins, and after the end of the Civil War and the adoption of the 13th, 14th and 15th Amendments.
What do we know about these individuals and their enslavement?
We are at the beginning of our inquiry into this new information, and we do not yet have any details into the identities or lives of these enslaved people, other than their ages, but that is a focus of our research.
Why did the university call him an abolitionist for so many years?
Since at least 1929, our understanding of our namesake’s connections to slaveholding and abolitionism appears to have come from a short book written by Johns Hopkins’ grand-niece Helen Thom that describes him as “a strong abolitionist.”
As far as we are aware, Johns Hopkins’ personal papers were either destroyed prior to his death or lost subsequently, and our primary, foundational reference documents have been Johns Hopkins’ will and letter to Hospital trustees which lay out his extraordinary act of philanthropy as well as his vision for our institution and its mission of research, education and service. New documents that are under analysis now from later in our founder’s life describe him as holding antislavery views and include comments by his contemporaries, including prominent Black leaders, lauding his philanthropic support for the establishment of an orphanage for Black children.
These findings call upon us to investigate—with diligence and openness—the full scope of the connections of Johns Hopkins and his family to the institution of slavery, which we are fully committed to continuing, wherever it may lead to bring us closer to the truth.
Process & Next Steps
In May, the university first heard of the possible existence of a census record indicating that Johns Hopkins had four enslaved people living in his house in 1850. Hopkins Retrospective Program Manager Allison Seyler was able to locate the record through extensive searching of online genealogical records compiled by the LDS church. The university then sought the guidance and expertise of historian and KSAS faculty member Professor Martha Jones, Society of Black Alumni Presidential Professor and Professor of History and the SNF Agora Institute. The painstaking process of confirming the record and its significance was slowed by COVID-related restrictions on use of the Maryland State Archives and other repositories.
Who is leading this research project?
At the university’s request, Professor Martha Jones, Society of Black Alumni Presidential Professor and Professor of History and the SNF Agora Institute, has taken up this issue. She is also engaged in a previously announced “hard history” project related to Johns Hopkins University’s legacy on discrimination in many forms, first and foremost race. Hopkins Retrospective Program Manager Allison Seyler and colleagues in the university’s archives are also contributing to this work and investigating the historical records.
Why has this information never come to light before now?
For a number of years, through the Hopkins Retrospective program, we have engaged in a university-wide initiative to explore the history of our university. As soon as we heard of the possible existence of a record linking Mr. Hopkins to slaveholding, we engaged in an intensive research process to find and verify that and other such documents. We are sharing this information at a relatively early stage in order to begin together a journey of further research and understanding. We have much more to discover, but we believed it was essential to inform our community as soon as we were confident in the basic facts.
As peer institutions have begun the process of looking closely at their hard histories, why has JH not engaged in a similar effort?
Since 2013 Hopkins has undertaken efforts to examine more fully its history through the Hopkins Retrospective project and other initiatives, including several to look at the role of enslaved labor on the land that would later become the Homewood campus, and this summer it announced a project by Professor Martha Jones to examine Johns Hopkins University’s legacy on discrimination in many forms, first and foremost race.
What are the University and Health System planning to do about these new revelations?
The fact that Mr. Hopkins had, at any time in his life, participated in the practice of slavery has been a disappointing revelation for us, as we know it will be for our community. It calls to mind not only the darkest chapters in the history of our country and our city, but also the complex history of our institutions since then – the legacies of racism and inequity, and the institutional and personal imperative to pursue truth.
These findings call upon us to investigate – with diligence and openness – the full scope of the connections of Johns Hopkins and his family to the institution of slavery. We will engage the Hopkins community, including neighbors in Baltimore, in a rigorous and unflinching reexamination of our institution’s origins. We will work together to acknowledge and account for the complex picture that is emerging of our namesake, his participation in slaveholding and relationship to anti-slavery politics and post-war reconstruction. We will engage hard questions about the implications of Johns Hopkins’ life and legacy over the course of our institution’s history and for its future.
This multi-year project will be closely linked to the longstanding Hopkins Retrospective and will likely encompass additional research, scholarly lectures and forums, an online archive, and commemorative events or public art in recognition and acknowledgment of our history, and remembrance of those who were enslaved by our founder and his family. It also will include a number of opportunities for the broad and meaningful participation of our community.
How will the community be involved in the process going forward?
We believe it is critically important for our entire community to be involved in this important work. That’s why we will engage the Hopkins community, including neighbors in Baltimore, in a rigorous and unflinching re-examination of our institution’s origins. We are fully committed to continuing this research wherever it may lead to bring us closer to the truth. We will begin seeking your ideas for this initiative at a town hall this week, and will maintain an open comment and suggestion line on the Hopkins Retrospective website. We will work together to acknowledge and account for the complex picture that is emerging of our namesake, his participation in slaveholding and relationship to anti-slavery politics and post-war reconstruction. We will engage hard questions about the implications of Johns Hopkins’ life and legacy over the course of our institution’s history and for its future.
This multi-year project will be closely linked to the Hopkins Retrospective and will likely encompass additional research, scholarly lectures and forums, an online archive, and commemorative events or public art in recognition and acknowledgment of our history, and remembrance of those who were enslaved by our founder and his family. It also will include a number of opportunities for your broad and meaningful participation, ideas and input as part of an open and inclusive process.
What is the timeline for learning more about this?
The process of finding and verifying information about our founder’s life more than a century and a half ago is painstaking, and we are dedicated to providing the resources necessary to complete it.
There are several immediate steps that we are taking. We are committed to continuing this research wherever it may lead and will fully support Professor Martha Jones and the work of the Hopkins Retrospective project to ensure that the history of our founder undergoes a rigorous and unsparing review.
- Continued research: We will delve deeply into the historical record, work to build a public repository of documents and knowledge, and ensure rigorous, scholarly engagement with, and interpretation of, these materials. We have also asked our historians under the leadership of Professor Martha Jones to propose a set of initiatives that explore the historical connections of our early donors, trustees and others to slavery. We anticipate that we will have a draft of that plan for public feedback this spring and to launch this series of initiatives by the end of the spring semester.
- Community involvement: We will begin seeking your ideas for this initiative at a town hall this week, and will maintain an open comment and suggestion line on the Hopkins Retrospective website. In coming months, there will be further opportunities for community engagement and dialogue on this issue.
- Tie in to ongoing DEI efforts: We also will work closely with our chief diversity officers, Katrina Caldwell (JHU) and Sherita Golden (JHM) to align our ongoing efforts and strategic priorities in diversity, equity and inclusion with this important new history initiative.
- Universities Studying Slavery: Johns Hopkins University and Medicine will join the Universities Studying Slavery (USS) project, which will allow us to work with a consortium of peers who have embarked upon similar efforts in recent years.
We will work together to ensure the participation of our full community—faculty, staff, students, alumni, and Baltimore neighbors—at every step along the way. We will begin seeking your ideas for this initiative at a town hall this week, and will maintain an open comment and suggestion line on the Hopkins Retrospective website. In coming months, there will be further opportunities for community engagement and dialogue on this issue. Opportunities for engagement and further exploration will be available online and members of the community are encouraged to follow Professor Jones’ work for her hard history project.
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Watch the video: André Rieu - And The Waltz Goes On composed by: Anthony Hopkins
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