Musical Memories of David Stenning

Musical Memories of David Stenning

My relationship with music is unsophisticated; I like and remember songs that appeal to me at first hearing and as a result, have not been able to enjoy those categories which require effort and education to appreciate such as opera and classical music.

There were few records in my household when growing up but I was an avid consumer of popular music from an early age. I used to listen to week-end shows on the radio such as Children's Choice with Uncle Mack, Family Favourites and Pick of the Pops. This latter show on a Sunday afternoon had a section on new releases which I monitored closely. Later, I absorbed everything that Juke Box Jury (Oi'll Give it 5), Ready Steady Go, Thank Your Lucky Stars and Top of the Pops had to offer on TV.

My song choices tend to have good melody, meaningful lyrics and interesting singing voices and I find as I get older that it is harder to find new music that I like. I put this down to the fact that my favourite artists were at their best when they were young and also that with today's new music, it is so easy to publish that bad stuff swamps the good. Fortunately, there is plenty of new "old stock".

Johnny Cash has an unmistakeable voice and is perfectly suited to the Nine Inch Nails' song Hurt. This tells of the pain caused by drugs and was recorded shortly before the singer's death in 2002. After listening to this song, I can say that I am turning to Leonard Cohen to be cheered up. As a poet turned singer/song-writer, I have enjoyed his mournful lyrics since the 1960's. Famous Blue Raincoat is in the form of a letter to a male friend with whom he had a lover in common. LC asks his friend "Did you ever go clear?" which some think is a reference to a level in the Church of Scientology which LC was a member of for a while.

Ex Police man Gordon Sumner (What's that you say, Gordon, you want us to start calling you Sting?) is a gifted song writer but an ordinary singer so I much prefer his Fields of Gold delivered by the silky, effortless vocals of Eva Cassidy. Her talent was sadly discovered post mortem when she was aired on Radio 2 in the 90's.

Whilst living in Yorkshire in the 1980's, I came across the phenomenon of Northern Soul where special venues in the north celebrated Motown and other American soul artists many of whom were rejects in their own country. Frank Wilson was one of these who pressed his only record and then destroyed most of the copies when he was not satisfied with it. Only a few survived and one copy sold for $25,000 at auction. His song Do I love you? is considered as the Northern soul anthem.

When I come across a favourite song covered by another artist and the result is better than the original, I hang on to it. Some diverse examples of this are Tori Amos singing the Nirvana song Smells like Teen Spirit and Grace Potter thumping out Cortez the Killer by Neil Young. An unlikely pairing in 2015 was Simon and Garfunkle's Sound of Silence and the heavy metal band Disturbed. The gentle folksy original is transformed into a passionate cri de coeur and the video of the live performance is riveting.

Mark Knopfler and his band Dire Straits impressed me when I first heard them. If he were only a good songwriter with an interesting voice, he would have a lot of appeal but with his sublime guitar playing, his performances are thrilling. There are several favourites including Romeo and Juliet where I think Mark's "You and me, Babe. How about it?" is equal to Shakespeare and Tunnel of Love with its beautiful guitar riffs but Sultans of Swing is my choice. It has all the elements together with a good story.

Although the Punk scene passed me by at the time as I was busy with child rearing and evening classes, I have paid it a lot of attention since. As a reaction to the dreary mainstream music of the early 70's, it engaged many young people and was an alternative outlet for their anger and energy. The New York poet and performance artist, Patti Smith sang her version of Van Morrison's Gloria in1975 and it was claimed to herald in the Punk movement. One of Patti's band members was Richard Sohl and he must have had a difficult time when he was at at school.

Music that tells stories of sunshine, surfing, girls in bikinis and hot rods racing makes me feel happy and wishing that I was on the beach in California. Brian Wilson formed the Beach Boys with his brothers and friends and wrote and produced these songs. Good Vibrations is a complex studio production described as a pocket symphony that I will never tire of. "I don't know where but it sends me there."

I was swept along on the wave of Beatlemania in the early 1960s and my interest in the group deepened as they developed. I had to write an essay in my 11 plus exam on "a person that I admire" and based it on Paul McCartney which was a risk that paid off. It is difficult to select a single song to represent the importance of the group but Strawberry Fields Forever is my choice. There are many reasons for liking this song but I particularly like the pervasive emphasis on the subdominant and the tonic reached through plagal cadences.

As a school-boy and in my career as a bean counter, I can say that I always longed for the week-ends to come and enjoyed songs that reflected this. The Easybeats from down under captured this in Friday on My Mind and David Bowie has an even better version. I think that The Cure really loved Fridays too and this comes over in their happy melody, Friday I'm in Love. Coming from Crawley, they probably welcomed the chance to go somewhere else on a Friday.

The idea of a self publicist writing about unhappy and inadequate people like fat girls and vicars wearing tutus would not have been expected to be popular in the 1980's but Morrisey's distinctive voice and language and Johnny Marr's guitar brought The Smiths to the attention of John Peel and the rest is history. There is a light that never goes out is a love song expressed with powerful imagery and was voted by the New Musical Express as the 12 th best song of all time.

When I first heard Bob Dylan, it was the sound of his voice that attracted me rather than the lyrics. As I got to understand the meanings of his songs, he became a hero for me like millions of others round the world. I much prefer his earlier work and the Freewheeling album in particular. Don't Think Twice It's Alright is so evocative of this time and I used to hope the girl he was moving on from was not the one on the album cover.

When I saw and enjoyed the film Withnail and I in the 1980s, the theme song was an instrumental of Whiter Shade of Pale which was a favourite song by Procol Harum. It was played by saxophonist King Curtis and created exactly the right ambiance to introduce the film. When considering this piece as one of my choices, I compared it to another instrumental, the Air on a G String by Jacques Loussier, better known as the Hamlet cigar advert. It would have been obvious to classical music fans, but not to me, that these two pieces are the same. Gregor Fisher must have had fun telling his luvvy pals that he was doing Hamlet again.

Killing Me Softly by Roberta Flack was released during my courting days in the early 1970's. I identified with the lyrics and liked her poignant delivery of the song and it always reminds me of those happy times.

There are lots of rock songs built around an infectious riff that make you feel like getting up on your feet and strumming that air guitar. Sweet Child O' Mine is one of them which has been highly acclaimed and which I enjoy in my car at high volume.


Woodstock, the Legendary 1969 Festival, Was Also a Miserable Mud Pit

The Woodstock Festival, held in August 1969, was a watershed moment in the 1960s counterculture movement. Expecting 50,000 attendees for a three-day music concert, the event instead drew an estimated 500,000.

The festival, billed as “Three Days of Peace and Music,” looms as large in the cultural imagination as the Apollo 11 moon landing that had captivated the world just a month earlier. But often lost in the haze of 1960s nostalgia is the fact that Woodstock, while undoubtedly a once-a-century cultural happening, was also a traffic-snarled, rain-soaked, mud-caked mess.

Nancy Eisenstein (in the hat) and her friends on the road to Woodstock.

Image courtesy of Nancy Eisenstein

“There was nothing comfortable about it, for sure,” says Nancy Eisenstein, who hopped in a friend’s van from Boston to see some of her favorite musicians perform live at Woodstock. “I can’t believe I put up with what I put up with, but when you’re 22, you put up with a lot more than when you’re 72.”

“We knew this was going to be the musical event of the century.” 

Eisenstein bought tickets to Woodstock ($18 for three days) back in Boston, where the local radio station had been buzzing all summer about the festival lineup, which would include folk legend Joan Baez and iconic rock acts like Janis Joplin, Jefferson Airplane and Jimi Hendrix. For Eisenstein, the biggest draw was The Who, which had just released its epic rock opera “Tommy.”

“We knew this was going to be the musical event of the century,” remembers Eisenstein, whose roommate joined her for the adventure.

Carl Porter also had a hunch that Woodstock was going to be big, but not nearly as big as it turned out to be. Porter’s family goes back generations in Sullivan County, New York, home to Max Yasgur’s dairy farm, the last-minute location for Woodstock. Porter grew up in New York City and was plugged into the Greenwich Village folk music and counterculture scene. He𠆝 heard rumblings for months about the festival and knew it was something he couldn’t miss.

“It was like a gathering storm.” 

Weeks before Woodstock’s opening day, Porter took leave from his army intelligence training in Texas to head back to his family’s homestead in upstate New York. There he watched as cars full of hippies with license plates from Washington State and California rolled past on the narrow country roads, their numbers doubling by the day.

“It was like a gathering storm,” says Porter.

Even though they got an early start on Friday, standstill traffic meant that Eisenstein’s ride had to park miles from the venue. So Eisenstein grabbed her only two possessions, a backpack and a sleeping bag, and started walking. She arrived early enough that Woodstock staffers were still collecting tickets (later that evening, when crowds overran the rudimentary fencing, the concert was declared 𠇏ree!”) and there was still plenty of open space on the bowl-shaped cow pasture facing the Woodstock stage. Eisenstein and her roommate picked a spot 30 feet from the stage and laid out their sleeping bags under a clear, blue sky.


2. Armstrong first received musical training during a stint in juvenile detention.

Armstrong with trumpet, late 1920s. (Credit: Gilles Petard/Redferns)

Armstrong spent his youth singing on the street for spare change, but he didn’t receive any formal musical training until age 11, when he was arrested for firing a pistol in the street during a New Year’s Eve celebration. The crime earned him a stint in a detention facility called the Colored Waif’s Home for Boys, and it was there that Armstrong claimed, “me and music got married.” He spent his 18-month sentence learning how to play bugle and cornet from the Waif’s Home’s music teacher, Peter Davis, and eventually became a star performer in its brass band. Armstrong continued honing his skills in New Orleans’ honkytonks after his release, and in 1919, he landed a breakthrough gig with a riverboat band led by musician Fate Marable. “I do believe that my whole success goes back to that time I was arrested as a wayward boy,” he later wrote, �use then I had to quit running around and began to learn something. Most of all, I began to learn music.”


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The Case of the Recurring Wodaabe: Visual Obsessions in Globalizing Markets

The Wodaabe people of the Sahel have been the subject of over seventeen documentary films—indeed, in both 1988 and 2007, three were released (Table 1). Filmmakers from Robert Gardner and Werner Herzog to National Geographic to individual researchers have turned their lenses on Wodaabe life, particularly their visually spectacular geerewol and yaake dances (Figs. 1–2). Likewise, Wodaabe have featured in sumptuous coffee table books (Fig. 3), the cover of National Geographic, Elle magazine, a World Bank brochure, advertising, CD and album covers. Their images have inspired painters and appeared on canvas bags, mugs, and mouse pads (Figs. 4–5). This concentration on the Wodaabe—a seeming visual obsession—is striking given the great diversity of culture and performance on the African continent.

SEVENTEEN FILMS ABOUT THE WODAABE

Year . Title (running time) . Director .
1954 Les Nomades du Soleil (44 min.) Henry Brandt (Swiss)
1972 Les Hommes du Dernier Soleil (62 min.) Paul Lambert (Swiss)
1979 Habbanaae: the Animal of FriendshipOxfam/America
1980 La Femme Volée (16 min.) (set in Cameroon) Nena Baratier & Geneviève Louveau (France)
1981 Deep Hearts (53 min.) Robert Gardner (US)
1988 Way of the Wodaabe (26 min.) National Geographic (with Carol Beckwith) (US)
1988 The Wodaabe (51 min.) Leslie Woodhead with Mette Bovin (Disappearing World series)
1988 Wodaabe—Herdsmen of the Sun (52 min.) Werner Herzog (German)
1992 The Art of Living (60 min.) Adrian Malone (Millennium: Tribal Wisdom and the Modern World series)
1992 Strange Relations (60 min.) Adrian Malone (Millennium: Tribal Wisdom and the Modern World series)
1992 På Tchad-söens BundEn Film om et Venskab (On the Bottom of Lake Chad—A Film about Friendship) (35 min.) Mette Bovin (Danish)
2002 Sahara with Michael Palin, episode 3: “Absolute Desert” (60 min.) John-Paul Davidson writer: Michael Palin (BBC series)
2006 Wodaabe, le Plus Beau des Combats (52 min.) Sandrine Loncke (French)
2007 Birds of the Wilderness: The Beauty Competition of the Wodaabe People of Niger (62 min.) Christopher Roy (US) (Art and Life in Africa series)
2007 Fulani: Art and Life of a Nomadic People (84 min.) Christopher Roy (US) (Art and Life in Africa series)
2007 Tribal Secrets: The Wodaabe (46 min.) National Geographic (US)
2010 La Danse des Wodaabe (90 min.) Sandrine Loncke (French)
Year . Title (running time) . Director .
1954 Les Nomades du Soleil (44 min.) Henry Brandt (Swiss)
1972 Les Hommes du Dernier Soleil (62 min.) Paul Lambert (Swiss)
1979 Habbanaae: the Animal of FriendshipOxfam/America
1980 La Femme Volée (16 min.) (set in Cameroon) Nena Baratier & Geneviève Louveau (France)
1981 Deep Hearts (53 min.) Robert Gardner (US)
1988 Way of the Wodaabe (26 min.) National Geographic (with Carol Beckwith) (US)
1988 The Wodaabe (51 min.) Leslie Woodhead with Mette Bovin (Disappearing World series)
1988 Wodaabe—Herdsmen of the Sun (52 min.) Werner Herzog (German)
1992 The Art of Living (60 min.) Adrian Malone (Millennium: Tribal Wisdom and the Modern World series)
1992 Strange Relations (60 min.) Adrian Malone (Millennium: Tribal Wisdom and the Modern World series)
1992 På Tchad-söens BundEn Film om et Venskab (On the Bottom of Lake Chad—A Film about Friendship) (35 min.) Mette Bovin (Danish)
2002 Sahara with Michael Palin, episode 3: “Absolute Desert” (60 min.) John-Paul Davidson writer: Michael Palin (BBC series)
2006 Wodaabe, le Plus Beau des Combats (52 min.) Sandrine Loncke (French)
2007 Birds of the Wilderness: The Beauty Competition of the Wodaabe People of Niger (62 min.) Christopher Roy (US) (Art and Life in Africa series)
2007 Fulani: Art and Life of a Nomadic People (84 min.) Christopher Roy (US) (Art and Life in Africa series)
2007 Tribal Secrets: The Wodaabe (46 min.) National Geographic (US)
2010 La Danse des Wodaabe (90 min.) Sandrine Loncke (French)

Dramatic images of young Wodaabe men dancing geerewol (Fig. 1, above) and yaake (Fig. 2, right) have circulated widely, emphasizing their elaborate dress, face paint, and facial gestures. Wodaabe photographs by Carol Beckwith first appeared in beautiful coffee table books such as Nomads of Niger (Fig. 1) and later in the two-volume African Ceremonies (Fig. 2) that she published with Angela Fisher, but they have also appeared in many other contexts.

Dramatic images of young Wodaabe men dancing geerewol (Fig. 1, above) and yaake (Fig. 2, right) have circulated widely, emphasizing their elaborate dress, face paint, and facial gestures. Wodaabe photographs by Carol Beckwith first appeared in beautiful coffee table books such as Nomads of Niger (Fig. 1) and later in the two-volume African Ceremonies (Fig. 2) that she published with Angela Fisher, but they have also appeared in many other contexts.

Dramatic images of young Wodaabe men dancing geerewol (Fig. 1, above) and yaake (Fig. 2, right) have circulated widely, emphasizing their elaborate dress, face paint, and facial gestures. Wodaabe photographs by Carol Beckwith first appeared in beautiful coffee table books such as Nomads of Niger (Fig. 1) and later in the two-volume African Ceremonies (Fig. 2) that she published with Angela Fisher, but they have also appeared in many other contexts.

Dramatic images of young Wodaabe men dancing geerewol (Fig. 1, above) and yaake (Fig. 2, right) have circulated widely, emphasizing their elaborate dress, face paint, and facial gestures. Wodaabe photographs by Carol Beckwith first appeared in beautiful coffee table books such as Nomads of Niger (Fig. 1) and later in the two-volume African Ceremonies (Fig. 2) that she published with Angela Fisher, but they have also appeared in many other contexts.

These four titles are just a sampling of the photo books that have featured images of the Wodaabe people. The top two are devoted entirely to Wodaabe the bottom two include Wodaabe sections in their regional coverage of Africa.

These four titles are just a sampling of the photo books that have featured images of the Wodaabe people. The top two are devoted entirely to Wodaabe the bottom two include Wodaabe sections in their regional coverage of Africa.

This oil painting, Wodaabe, by Pasadena artist George Combs, is available as a giclee print or on greeting cards through Fine Art America.

This oil painting, Wodaabe, by Pasadena artist George Combs, is available as a giclee print or on greeting cards through Fine Art America.

This canvas bag with an image of a Wodaabe man applying makeup is one example of the Wodaabe-decorated merchandise available online. Screenshot by Corinne Kratz on 29 April 2015.

This canvas bag with an image of a Wodaabe man applying makeup is one example of the Wodaabe-decorated merchandise available online. Screenshot by Corinne Kratz on 29 April 2015.

Wodaabe are a pastoral Fulani group of roughly 100,000 people, sometimes known as Bororo. 1 Most live in Niger, where they are denigrated and marginalized for their nomadic life and non-Islamic religion. Wodaabe are known particularly for their geerewol and yaake performances, which occur during annual rainy season gatherings. Both involve competitions between young men from two lineages and moieties and selection of the most beautiful dancers (Fig. 6). Since 1950 the dances have also been performed as entertainment and cultural spectacle for various audiences.

Young Wodaabe women judge the geerewol dancers, as shown in this photo from a final series of images in Nomads of Niger. They “kneel modestly” before the line of dancers, “left hands up as if to conceal their scrutiny” (Beckwith and van Offelen 1982:218–19).

Young Wodaabe women judge the geerewol dancers, as shown in this photo from a final series of images in Nomads of Niger. They “kneel modestly” before the line of dancers, “left hands up as if to conceal their scrutiny” (Beckwith and van Offelen 1982:218–19).

This paper considers questions related to these recurring images but it is only partly about Wodaabe. It is more about the circulation, proliferation, and reframing of cultural images and about cultural obsession. But the obsessions are ours, even though presented as theirs. I will sketch the process of proliferation and the story of how this global Wodaabe cornucopia came about.

Wodaabe films, books, and images have circulated in Europe, the US, and African countries. 2 Wodaabe themselves have performed internationally in France, Denmark, Belgium, Spain, Canada, Morocco, Burkina Faso, and other African and European countries, as a warm-up group for Baaba Mal in Paris (Boesen 2008a:159) and at Eurodisney (Lassibille 2006:116). In Niger, they perform for visiting dignitaries, heads of state, and tourists, at agricultural shows, and an annual post-Ramadan celebration in the Niamey sports stadium (Loftsdóttir 2008:178). Tourists, journalists, diplomats, and expatriate aid workers attend dances that Wodaabe organize for themselves outside town settings (Boesen 2008a:147, 153 Bovin 1998:106–108, 2001:60 Lassibille 2006, 2009 Loftsdóttir 2002:12, 2008:178, 194). The Wodaabe-Tuareg musical group Etran Finatawa also incorporates dress from the dances when they perform their “nomad blues” (Fig. 7), touring in Europe, North and South America, Australia, and west, south, and central Africa. 3 In short, Wodaabe dance and images have gained widespread international currency over the last sixty-five years and might now be considered a global phenomenon.

Founded in 2004, the group Etran Finatawa includes both Wodaabe and Tuareg musicians. They incorporate dress, face paint, and facial gestures related to Wodaabe men's dances into their performance style, as seen on the cover of their third CD, Tarkat Tajje/Let's Go!

Founded in 2004, the group Etran Finatawa includes both Wodaabe and Tuareg musicians. They incorporate dress, face paint, and facial gestures related to Wodaabe men's dances into their performance style, as seen on the cover of their third CD, Tarkat Tajje/Let's Go!

The proliferation and spread of Wodaabe imagery and performances offer a way to understand how cultural resources—in this case visual representations, people, and performances—circulate in global economies. The Wodaabe case highlights complications and convolutions in those disparate circulations and social processes and shows how they can entwine across locales and scales. African art is no stranger to the marketplace, but the Wodaabe case points to transformations in how markets are defined, how interconnections and circulations work, and how cultural resources—knowledge, products, and practice—are involved in creative production. Transformations might be local, regional, cross-regional, international, multinational, and at times global, with conjunctions that produce collaborations, debates, tensions, and conflicts of many sorts, with positive and negative outcomes (Kratz and Karp 2006:2 Karp, Kratz et al. 2006).

These shifts, recontextualizations, reinterpretations, and interactions might lead to a range of transformations and changes. Formal changes include Wodaabe circle dances restaged in lines facing European festival audiences and framed by a presenter (Lassibille 2006:120–122 Loftsdóttir 2008:195), or mixing dress and make-up styles, genders, and generations in tourist performances (Lassibille 2009:328 Loftsdóttir 2008:195). 4 Structural changes include expansion of Wodaabe performance venues to towns, agricultural shows, and international settings, coordination with tourist itineraries, and articulations with market processes. Processual changes often encompass transformed social relations: shifts in production as lineage associations organize tour performances or the new annual Assembly begun in 2004 in brokerage relations and new transnational networks linking performances and development projects in monetization through photography fees and jewelry sales and of course, in commodification of images (Lassibille 2006, 2009 Loftsdóttir 2008). 5

Scholars have analyzed such phenomena by focusing on particular globalizing processes and domains, using models of layered motion to conceptualize systems and networks where parts move, intersect, and transform in different ways. This includes work on marketing identity and tourism and analyses of the politics and production of heritage that show how metacultural processes in self-presentation reshape relations to one's own culture, traditions, and practice (Stanley 1998 Comaroff and Comaroff 2009 Geismar 2013 Kirshenblatt-Gimblett 1998, 2006 Witz 2012 Franquesa 2013 Peterson et al. 2015). Also important is work on intellectual property and on financial arrangements and creative production in world music and indigenous art, where ideologies and ontologies of design, property, and ethnicity might clash (Feld 1996, 2000 Brown 2003 Meintjes 2003 Seeger and Chaudhuri 2004 Myers 2005 Sanga 2010 Karp and Kratz 2015). Mobilities and cultural transformations are also addressed in work on cosmopolitanisms and on migration and refugees—a status Wodaabe experienced during dire droughts (Appiah 2006, 2007 Cheah and Robbins 1998).

Scholars take different stances on globalizing-localizing dynamics, finding both exploitative cultural imperialism and empowering situations that offer economic opportunities and promote cultural diversity and understanding. Steve Feld identifies these contrasting anxious or celebratory representations in writing about globalization, increasingly in tense combination (2000:153–54). We could stage this like a debate on erstwhile host Jon Stewart's The Daily Show, with t-shirts for anxious Team Exploitation, celebratory Team Empowerment, and a third, Team Local Conditions, that emphasizes how these dynamics work within local politics of ethnicity and nation. A variant, call it Team Multilocal Conditions, traces social processes and transformations across sites, situating actors and dynamics in varied situations (Kratz and Karp 2006). The debate format might suggest one team wins, but the more subtle understanding would recruit them all.

Yet while the Wodaabe phenomenon clearly entails a far-flung distribution of images and performances based on equally wide-reaching international interactions, most films, popular photo books, and performances are framed by a different narrative. They present a different Wodaabe, described as traditional, unchanging, authentic, “people of the taboo”—not people embedded in global economies who perform internationally. Their culture is portrayed as ancient, connected to rock paintings in the region, and their nomadic life and lack of permanent housing underline exotic contrasts. 6 Some late 1980s films comment on recent droughts and Wodaabe movement to towns and refugee camps, framed as endangered cultures. This template is all too familiar, and far from unique to Wodaabe. Deconstructing stereotypes of timelessness, isolation, primitivism and disappearance is the starting place for analyzing representations of African societies and other seemingly “exotic others.” But that doesn't seem to change the images and representations much.

The Wodaabe proliferation is notable, then, but not unique. Just looking in the film collection at Emory University, where I work, I found a dozen films about Maasai and eighteen about Zulu. Both have long representational histories that include trade cards, stereographs, staged popular presentations, films, photo books, games, and advertising (Kratz and Gordon 2002:250 Sobania 2002 Smith 2013) (Figs. 8–9). It is precisely through such dispersed but ubiquitous repetition—crossing media, formats, and contexts—that stereotypes and archetypes are reproduced and perpetuated, often casting pastoralists in the romanticized, “noble savage” slot. 7


Types of Memory

While several different models of memory have been proposed, the stage model of memory is often used to explain the basic structure and function of memory. Initially proposed in 1968 by Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin, this theory outlines three separate stages of memory: sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory.

Sensory Memory

Sensory memory is the earliest stage of memory. During this stage, sensory information from the environment is stored for a very brief period of time, generally for no longer than a half-second for visual information and 3 or 4 seconds for auditory information. We attend to only certain aspects of this sensory memory, allowing some of this information to pass into the next stage: short-term memory.

Short-Term Memory

Short-term memory, also known as active memory, is the information we are currently aware of or thinking about. In Freudian psychology, this memory would be referred to as the conscious mind. Paying attention to sensory memories generates information in short-term memory.

While many of our short-term memories are quickly forgotten, attending to this information allows it to continue to the next stage: long-term memory. Most of the information stored in active memory will be kept for approximately 20 to 30 seconds.

The term "short-term memory" is often used interchangeably with "working memory," which refers to the processes that are used to temporarily store, organize, and manipulate information.

Long-Term Memory

Long-term memory refers to the continuing storage of information. In Freudian psychology, long-term memory would be called the preconscious and unconscious. This information is largely outside of our awareness but can be called into working memory to be used when needed. Some of this information is fairly easy to recall, while other memories are much more difficult to access.


DOLLY PARTON

Among Dolly’s most cherished childhood memories are the many magical moments spent on the front porch of the Parton Family’s Tennessee Mountain Home. Whether in the warmth of the afternoon sun or in the soft evening breeze, the stage was set on that cherished porch. It was where Dolly, with a tin can as a microphone and the light of a million dancing fireflies, could sing to her heart’s content and dream of taking her music to the stages of the world. The Front Porch page here at DollyParton.com is a place where you will find the stories that are a part of the fabric of one little girl’s big dreams, woven into the legacy that is Dolly Parton. There’s a warm welcome waiting on the Front Porch, where family and friends alike are invited to join Dolly inside.

DOLLY’S FAMILY DESTINATIONS

DISCOVER THE LATEST NEWS & HISTORY OF DOLLY'S FAMILY DESTINATIONS

Dollywood theme park is known for its world-class entertainment, amazing thrill rides and family-friendly adventure. The park offers more than 40 world-class rides, high-energy entertainment, award-winning dining and the friendliest park atmosphere in the world!

Dollywood’s DreamMore Resort and Spa, located beside Dollywood and Dollywood’s Splash Country, is the culmination of a personal dream of Dolly’s which she originally shared with Barbara Walters before opening her theme park.

Being raised in a cabin in the Smokies inspired Dolly to open Dollywood’s Smoky Mountain Cabins. It’s just something about staying in a beautiful rustic cabin that makes the time spent with family that much more special.

Nearly 15 years after opening Dollywood, Dolly and team opened Dollywood’s Splash Country. Next door to Dollywood, Dollywood’s Splash Country is an award winning water park featuring a variety of water attractions.

Dolly Parton’s Stampede is an extraordinary dinner show with thirty-two magnificent horses and a cast of top-notch riders. They will thrill you with daring feats of trick riding and competition, in a friendly and fun rivalry. You will enjoy a barrel full of music, dancing, special effects and family-friendly comedy along the way.

Pirates Voyage Dinner & Show invites ye to join Captain Blackbeard, the most famous pirate to ever sail the seven seas, and his quartermaster Calico Jack as they lead the Crimson and Sapphire crews in an epic battle for lost treasure on land, on deck, in water and high above full-sized pirate ships in a 15 foot deep indoor hideaway lagoon.

Dolly Parton is one of an elite group of individuals to receive at least one nomination from all four major annual American entertainment award organizations Emmy, GRAMMY, Oscar, and Tony. Her songs have captured the hearts of generations.

Inspired by her father’s inability to read and write Dolly started her Imagination Library in 1995 for the children within her home county. Today, her program spans five countries and gifts over 1 million free books each month to children around the world.


"Memories" lyrics

Here's to the ones that we got
Cheers to the wish you were here, but you're not
'Cause the drinks bring back all the memories
Of everything we've been through
Toast to the ones here today
Toast to the ones that we lost on the way
'Cause the drinks bring back all the memories
And the memories bring back, memories bring back you

There's a time that I remember, when I did not know no pain
When I believed in forever, and everything would stay the same
Now my heart feel like December when somebody say your name
'Cause I can't reach out to call you, but I know I will one day, yeah

Everybody hurts sometimes
Everybody hurts someday, ayy-ayy
But everything gon' be alright
Go and raise a glass and say, ayy

Here's to the ones that we got
Cheers to the wish you were here, but you're not
'Cause the drinks bring back all the memories
Of everything we've been through
Toast to the ones here today
Toast to the ones that we lost on the way
'Cause the drinks bring back all the memories
And the memories bring back, memories bring back you

Doo-doo, doo-doo-doo-doo
Doo-doo-doo-doo, doo-doo-doo-doo
Doo-doo-doo-doo, doo-doo-doo
Memories bring back, memories bring back you

There's a time that I remember when I never felt so lost
When I felt all of the hatred was too powerful to stop (Ooh, yeah)
Now my heart feel like an ember and it's lighting up the dark
I'll carry these torches for ya that you know I'll never drop, yeah

Everybody hurts sometimes
Everybody hurts someday, ayy-ayy
But everything gon' be alright
Go and raise a glass and say, ayy

Here's to the ones that we got (Oh-oh)
Cheers to the wish you were here, but you're not
'Cause the drinks bring back all the memories
Of everything we've been through (No, no)
Toast to the ones here today (Ayy)
Toast to the ones that we lost on the way
'Cause the drinks bring back all the memories (Ayy)
And the memories bring back, memories bring back you

Doo-doo, doo-doo-doo-doo
Doo-doo-doo-doo, doo-doo-doo-doo
Doo-doo-doo-doo, doo-doo-doo
Memories bring back, memories bring back you
Doo-doo, doo-doo-doo-doo
Doo-doo-doo-doo, doo-doo-doo-doo
Doo-doo-doo-doo, doo-doo-doo (Ooh, yeah)
Memories bring back, memories bring back you

Yeah, yeah, yeah
Yeah, yeah, yeah, yeah, yeah, no, no
Memories bring back, memories bring back you


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Slash

Paul Stenning has written a number of rock music books over the years, mostly those of bands rather than individuals. This biography of Slash looks to be his first attempt at telling the story of a particular band member and if it&aposs anything to go by, I certainly won&apost be reading any of the others he may produce.

Slash has been an iconic figure for many years, ever since Guns &aposN&apos Roses hit the rock music scene with a resounding crash back in the latter part of the 1980s. Not only was he a great g Paul Stenning has written a number of rock music books over the years, mostly those of bands rather than individuals. This biography of Slash looks to be his first attempt at telling the story of a particular band member and if it's anything to go by, I certainly won't be reading any of the others he may produce.

Slash has been an iconic figure for many years, ever since Guns 'N' Roses hit the rock music scene with a resounding crash back in the latter part of the 1980s. Not only was he a great guitarist, but with a distinctive look thanks to a large mess of dark curly hair, his top hat and ever present Marlboro and bottle of Jack Daniels. He had trouble with drink, drugs and his relationship with Axl Rose, Guns 'N' Roses lead singer. After Guns 'N' Roses, Slash played with a couple of other groups and is still recording as a member of Velvet Revolver.

The book covers Slash's life from his early days as a child in Stoke, through his move to America and his guitar playing career right up to the present. Unfortunately, it fails to deal with much of his life outside the music industry in any great depth His childhood, in particular, is touched on only very briefly and the book provides no real insight into the way he was growing up. Given that there are some potentially quite interesting aspects in his younger days, like his family moving from Stoke to America and his mother briefly dating David Bowie, more information on these things and how they affected Slash in later life would have been very welcome.

The one part that is covered in a fair amount of detail is Slash's career as part of Guns 'N' Roses, as this was by far the most successful part of his life, at least professionally. Again, whilst this is often fascinating information about how they got together and their early days as a band, it's all largely skimmed over. This part of the book has as much to do with the band itself as it does about Slash personally, although the sections where the deteriorating relationships between band members do involve him, although most of those situations had more to do with Axl than with Slash.

What I suspect is the major problem with this book is that it's an "unofficial and unauthorised" biography, which means that the author has not spoken directly to Slash or to many people associated with him whilst writing the book. There are plenty of quotes from Slash and from people who surrounded him throughout the text, but these are mostly referenced to other sources, mostly websites and magazines. There are a couple of surprising moments, such as finding Slash quoted on a pregnancy website talking about his children, but this does appear to be a book largely collated from information which has been in the public domain for a while.

Part of the other side of things that annoyed me was that there was quite a lot of the author's personal opinion within the book, especially when it comes to Slash's work. Wherever the author is talking about a particular album, he goes through it in a manner that would be better suited to a Dooyoo or Ciao review, not a published biography. Whilst personal opinion is certainly a valid form of expression, it doesn't seem to feel quite right having a place within the pages of a biography.

The book only succeeds in raising any level of interest in me because the subject has led a pretty interesting life and because I've been a big fan of two of the major groups Slash has been involved in. The book talks about events that are part of my own memories, but it concentrates entirely on information that already exists in the public domain and offers no new insights at all. Indeed, the only thing that Stenning has really done here is taken the time and effort that escape most people in going through and putting all this information together in one place. About the only thing that came as even a minor revelation to me was the discovery that, without his famous top hat, Slash is exactly the same height as I am. When something this minor is the main surprise in a book, it suggests there's not a huge amount going on within the pages.

A book this simply written and this lacking in new information would be a rip off at any price. I borrowed the copy I read from a friend and I still think I was overcharged. Personally, I would feel that the nest way of getting the most out of Slash is to play his records, rather than to read this book.


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