Identification of radio equipment and its purpose in Vietnam

Identification of radio equipment and its purpose in Vietnam

The following photograph is from the first years of U.S. involvement in Vietnam. These soldiers are wearing baseball caps and their patches are in color. Later, the patches were olive drab. Obviously, it's some sort of listening equipment, but what kind? And what for?

They are wearing the 25th Infantry Division patch. Their equipment is from the 27th Infantry Regiment ("Wolfhounds"). Thoughts on possible location would be helpful.

Other images from same source: photo 1, photo 2, photo 3.


I think what you have there may be the AN/TPS-21 battlefield radar:

Further details about the unit are available in the Department of the Army Technical Manual, TM 11-487C-1: Military Standardization Handbook: United States Radar Equipment.


The functional description of the AN/TPS-21 radar is given as follows:

Radar Set AN/TPS-21 is lightweight, portable battlefield surveillance equipment that will search for and detect moving ground targets. The range of the radar set is 100 to 20,000 yds. A characteristic audio signal with a frequency variation dependent upon the speed and direction of the moving target is the 'ontarget' indication. It is capable of an automatic search or 'sector scan' function in which a terrain area, with a depth of 880 yds and a width variable from 30 to 140 degrees or a continuous 360 degrees, is scanned for evidence of moving targets. In addition, the equipment may be manually operated to follow the target and indicate its range and azimuth.

(My emphasis)


If you are interested, the technical specifications of the AN/TPS-21 radar were as follows:

  • Frequency: 9375 plus or minus 30 mc
  • Type of Frequency Control: Automatic electronic frequency control.
  • Type of Emission: Pulse-modulated rf
  • Transmitter Bandwidth: 5 mc
  • Local Oscillator Range: 8500 to 10,000 mc
  • Average Power Output: 2 to 4w
  • Peak Power, Duration and Pulse Repetition Rate: 4 to 7 kw, 6.4 usec, 1600 pps
  • IF Frequency: 30 mc
  • Receiver Selectivity: 3 db down at 5.5 mc
  • Receiver Sensitivity: -98 dbm (min discernible signal).
  • Receiver Output: 50 to 100 mw into a 200 ohm headset.

Electrical Input and Output Data

  • Trigger Input: 30 to 45v across 98 ohms at 1600 pps
  • Video Input: 20v across 1 meg
  • Audio Output: 50 to 100 mw across 200 ohms

Antenna

  • Rotation: 4 deg per sec
  • Beam Width: 3 deg x 10 deg
  • Gain: 25 db

.

  • Ambient Temperature: -54 deg C (-65 deg F) to plus 57 deg C (plus 135 deg F).
  • Altitude Limitations: Up to 10,000 ft
  • Humidity Limitations: Up to 95%
  • Power Supply Characteristics: 115v, 400 cycle, single ph; 28v dc

It looks like equipment for artillery sound ranging - which uses the time difference of arrival for artillery fire to calculate either (a) the location of enemy guns; or (b) how close to a target one's own artillery has hit.

Note the semi-parabolic reflectors behind the mikes. These are parabolic only in one plane (slightly off vertical) in all photographs rather than in two planes. Thus the accurate direction of the sound being ranged is unnecessary of course, as that is to be calculated), yet collection occurs in the one plane. I expect that the angle is set to point the mikes just above a rise on the other side of the valley.


Identification of radio equipment and its purpose in Vietnam - History

  • Battalion HQ Group
    (5 Officers and 31 Other ranks) ,
  • 4 x Rifle Companies (Alpha, Bravo, Charlie and Delta)
    (ea of 5 Officers and 118 Other ranks)
    • Each company consisted of,
      Company HQ - 2 Officers and 13 Other ranks
      Support Section - 6 Other ranks and
      3 x Platoons each of
      • platoon HQ, 1 officer and 3 other ranks ( Plt Sgt, radio op and batman) and
      • 3 x Rifle Sections each of 10 Other ranks (1 Cpl, 1 L/Cpl, 8 Ptes)
      • Mortar Platoon - 2 Officers and 31 Other ranks
        • provided mortar support for the battalion and the Task Force with six 81mm mortar tubes and generally operated from the base area or from a Fire Support Base (FSB). A Mortar FO would accompany rifle companies.
        • equipped with 16 Medium Anti-Tank Weapons (MAW) the Platoon provided additional fire support for the battalion.
        • equipped with the ANPRC 25 radio set provided and maintained all radio and telephone communication requirements for the battalion. Each rifle company HQ was allocated two radio operators. Radio Operators manned the radios and telephones in the battalion Command Post (CP) and accompanied the battalion on operations. Platoon radio operators were normally drawn from the platoon itself.
        • played a similar role to engineers. This Platoon provided valuable support for the battalion in defence works, mine detection and field engineering
        • Surveillance Platoon - 1 Officer and 14 Other ranks


        Total Strength = 37 Officers and 755 Other ranks

        It is unlikely that any battalion ever went into the field at full strength. Illness, leave entitlements, troops ending period of engagement all sapped a battalions strength. The numbers above are a guide only and were altered to suit circumstances on a daily, weekly and tour basis.

        The Infantry Rifle Section


        Composition - 1 Cpl (Section Commander) - 1 L/Cpl (Section 2i/c) - Scout Group(2 Pte) - Gun Group(2 Pte) - Rifle Group(4 Pte).


        Weapons Used by Infantry Rifle Sections

        L1A1 Self Loading Rifle (SLR) - semi auto - fired a 7.62mm standard NATO round - weight 10lbs - magazine capacity 20 rounds - range 300metres - standard issue weapon for all soldiers in the Australian Army. Very robust and dependable weapon. Each soldier carried at least 150 rounds each.

        M16A1 Armalite Rifle - (Colt AR15) fully auto - 5.56mm round - weight 7 lbs. - magazine capacity 20/30 rounds - range 300 metres - carried primarily by forwards scouts in each section of a rifle company, also issued to selected appointments in a unit. This weapon was not issued to Australian troops until stocks were obtained form US sources in 1966. Early versions of this weapon were prone to stoppages and breakages, caused mainly by an unsatisfactory and weak alloy bolt carrier. That was fixed.

        General Purpose Machine Gun M60 (GPMG M60) - fired a 7.62mm round and fed by linked ammo belt of 100 rounds - weight 23 lb - range up to 1100 metres. This was the main fire support weapon for each section who carried 1 M60 and at least 1200 rounds. Reliable weapon , provided ammunition belts were kept clean and the weapon was well maintained. Was prone to continual stoppages if the weapon became too worn .

        F1 Sub Machine Gun - fired a 9mm round - magazine capacity 30 rounds - weight 7.2 lb - range 100 metres. This weapon was totally unsuitable for conditions in Vietnam. The range (100 Metres) and low velocity of the 9mm round was not capable of penetrating the jungle and undergrowth. The M16 Armalite was eventually issued in place of this weapon.

        40 MM M79 Grenade Launcher - carried by each rifle section with 36 rounds - weight 6 lb - range 300 metres. Very effective against enemy troops and light installations.

        M26 Fragmentation Grenade - carried by each member of a rifle section - lethal radius of 10 metres. Used effectively for close quarter fighting and clearing enemy bunkers and weapon pits. A smooth bodied high explosive grenade. It weighed 425g with a fuse delay of five seconds. The average throwing distance was 40 metres. Its blast radius was ten metres, with a killing distance of 5 metres and a wounding distance of up to 25 metres. The members were initially issued with two M26 grenades per man.

        No 83 Smoke Grenade - used in various colours to indicate to position of enemy and friendly troops. Used largely to indicate to helicopters and aircraft, the position of a unit. Helicopters would not land or evacuate wounded until a smoke grenade was thrown and the colour of the grenade was verified.

        M49 Trip Flare - and used at night as an early warning device to detect and illuminate enemy movement.

        M18 Claymore Mine - 10 carried by each rifle section - range of 50 metres. Used extensively as a defensive weapon in night harbours and was most effective when used in ambushing enemy parties.

        M72 66 mm Light Anti-Tank Weapon LAW) - weight 4.5 lbs. - range 200 metres. Light weight and simple design, this weapon was most effective against enemy installations such as bunkers and buildings. Fired a high explosive round from a disposable launcher.

        A Typical Load carried by an Infantry Soldier.

        Individual items of gear included, basic webbing harness, weapon and ammunition, a shell dressing, entrenching tool, machete, M26 grenade, nine full water bottles, five days rations, small stove and hexamine tablets for cooking, shaving gear, steel mug, shelter, lightweight blanket, hammock, spare socks and bayonet.

        In addition each 10 man section shared a load of, 6 x 100 round belts for the M60 MG, spare barrel for the M60 MG, M49 flares, smoke grenades, white phosphorus grenades, grenade spigots and ballastite cartridges, claymore mines, detonating cord, plastic explosive, M79 rounds, M72 LAWs, spare radio batteries, torch, starlight scope night vision device, panel markers for identification to aircraft, binoculars, compass, maps, protractor, pace counter, strobe light, secateurs, medical kit, watches, codes and writing equipment.


        Signallers carried the ANPRC Radio with spares batteries and handset and antennas.
        Platoon medics carried a comprehensive medical kit.

        Dress - consisted of jungle greens with sleeves down, general purpose boots (GPs), sweat rag, floppy green bush hat.


        Electronic Records Relating to the Vietnam War

        This reference report provides an overview of the electronic data records in the custody of the National Archives that contain data related to military objectives and activities during the Vietnam War.

        The National Archives holds a large body of electronic records that reflects the prolific use of computers by the military establishment in carrying out operations during the Vietnam War. Under the auspices of Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara, the military implemented an extensive data collection effort intended to improve the conduct of the conflict. The raw data documented details of casualties, military operations, military logistics, pacification programs, and other aspects of the war. With the data in electronic form, analysts performed statistical and quantitative analysis to assess and influence the direction of the conflict. After the conflict ended in the 1970's, various Department of Defense organizations, including the Office of the Secretary of Defense, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and the Joint Commands, transferred the raw data files to the National Archives. Some of these records include documentary material that has not been transferred to the National Archives in any other format.

        This reference report is organized by nine broad categories of Vietnam War data as listed above in the table of contents. For each category, the relevant electronic records series are listed along with information about the number of files, available output formats (see Output Formats for details), and technical documentation. Many of the series listed also have supplemental documentation. Since some series contain data applicable to more than one category, researchers may wish to review all potentially related categories and review the full descriptions for more details on the content of the records.

        In several cases, different Department of Defense agencies used the same data systems, but may have modified the system to meet their needs. Therefore, NARA may have two versions or series of the same system. For example, both the Office of the Secretary of Defense (Record Group 330) and the Military Assistance Command, Vietnam (records found in Record Group 472) transferred files from the Hamlet Evaluation System (HES). In general, besides the fact that difference agencies transferred the files, the versions may differ in time coverage, format, and/or layout. While the different versions may contain some of the same records, there may be records in one version that are not in the other and vice versa.

        Full descriptions of the series and data files listed in this report are in the National Archives Catalog. Users can search the Catalog by title, National Archives Identifier, type of archival material, or keyword.

        NARA also has custody of textual (paper) records related to some of the Vietnam War data files described in this reference report. Some of these records may include outputs from the systems and reports based on the data. Users may wish to search the National Archives Catalog for descriptions of any related textual (paper) records.

        Some of the series and files listed in this report are accessible online:

        • Download - This is a link for downloading the files and documentation from the Catalog. For more details on downloading files, please review the frequently asked questions (FAQs).
        • Search - This is a link for searching the records via the Access to Archival Databases (AAD) resource.

        All of the files are also available for a cost-recovery fee. For more information see: Ordering Information for Electronic Records.

        Please note that NARA makes public use versions available of records containing personal identifiers that if released may result in an unwarranted invasion of privacy. Such public use versions mask or delete these sensitive personal identifiers. In general, records of deceased casualties are released in full. The description and/or the technical documentation for a series outlines the information masked in the public use version.

        Data about Military Operations, Incidents, and Activities

        Record Group 218: Records of the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff

          Republic of Vietnam Incidents Files (INCDA), 1/26/1973 - 4/21/1975
          National Archives Identifier:601815
          Data Files: 4 (ASCII translated) (NIPS version also available)
          Technical Documentation: 56 pages
          Online Access: DownloadSearch

        This series contains information on ceasefire violation combat incidents.

        This series contains data on Viet Cong (VC) incidents against South Vietnam (SVN) indigenous civilian population plus damage or destruction of private or government property and /or installations. These files came from Headquarters, Pacific Command (PACOM) via the Survivability/Vurnerability Information Analysis Center (SURVIAC) [Wright-Paterson Air Force Base].

        Record Group 330: Records of the Office of the Secretary of Defense

          Records About Combat Incidents in Cambodia During the Vietnam War [KHMER], 6/30/1970 - 6/12/1974
          National Archives Identifier:574517
          Data Files: 1 (ASCII translated) (NIPS version also available)
          Technical Documentation: 18 page, 4 electronic documentation files
          Online Access: DownloadSearch

        This series contains information on incidents involving friendly and enemy military units operating in Cambodia during the Vietnam War and Cambodian War.

        This series consists of records of Viet Cong and North Vietnamese initiated incidents of violence against the civilian population of South Vietnam during the Vietnam War. TIRSA is part of the Operations Analysis (OPSANAL) system.

        This series provides select data on enemy initiated incidents during the Vietnam War. VCIIA is part of the Operations Analysis (OPSANAL) system.

        Record Group 472: Records of the U.S. Forces in Southeast Asia

          Psychological Operations Information System (PSYOPSIS) Files, 3/1970 - 2/1973
          National Archives Identifier:23812710
          Data Files: 5 (ASCII Rendered) (NIPS version available)
          Technical Documentation: 90 pages
          Online Access: Download

        This series contains records about aerial and surface psychological operations carried out by the U.S. military during the Vietnam War. This data served as input for the Psychological Operation Quarterly Analysis System (PSYOPQA).

        This series contains aggregate data about psychological operations carried out by the U.S. military during the Vietnam War. The data from the Psychological Operations Information System (PSYOPSIS) served as input for this series. The data was linked with selected data from the Hamlet Evaluation System (HES).

        This series contains data about incidents by the enemy against the civilian population, and public and private property. Incidents captured in the system include deaths, abductions, seizure of property, damage to property, and injuries, to name a few. This system was used as input for "Terrorist Incident Reporting System (TIRSA) Files, 10/1967 - 2/1973."

        Data specific to Land Military Operations and Activities

        Record Group 218: Records of the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff

          Records About the Ground Combat Operations by the Army During the Vietnam War, 5/20/1966 - 3/12/1973 (also known as Situation Report Army (SITRA))
          National Archives Identifier:604416
          Data Files: 4 (ASCII translated) (NIPS versions available)
          Technical Documentation: 49 pages, 2 electronic documentation files
          Online Access: DownloadSearch

        This series contains records of ground combat operations in Southeast Asia during the Vietnam War, and includes but is not limited to information on the type of military operation, nationalities of armed forces, location, and dates.

        This series includes statistical operations data about friendly initiated (FO) incidents and actions in Southeast Asia during the Vietnam War. It appears this series may conain data from the Republic of Vietnam Operational Statistics System (RVNOSS). These files came from Headquarters, Pacific Command (PACOM) via the Survivability/Vulnerability Information Analysis Center (SURVIAC) [Wright-Patterson Air Force Base].

        This series includes operations data about enemy initiated (VC) incidents and actions in Southeast Asia during the Vietnam War. It appears this series may contain data from the Republic of Vietnam Operational Statistics System (RVNOSS). These files came from Headquarters, Pacific Command (PACOM) via the Survivability/Vulnerability Information Analysis Center (SURVIAC) [Wright-Patterson Air Force Base].

        Record Group 330: Records of the Office of the Secretary of Defense

          Enemy Base Area File (BASFA), 7/1/1967 - 6/1/1971
          National Archives Identifier:600139
          Data Files: 1 (ASCII translated) (NIPS version available)
          Technical Documentation: 40 pages
          Online Access: DownloadSearch

        This series contains data that define enemy base area locations in South Vietnam, North Vietnam, and Cambodia on a monthly basis. BASFA is part of the Operations Analysis (OPSANAL) system.

        This series contains information on the identity and location of American, South Vietnamese, and Allied maneuver battalions (infantry, armored, cavalry, airborne, and air mobile) deployed in Southeast Asia during the Vietnam War. SEAFA is part of the Operations Analysis (OPSANAL) system.

        This series contains data on ground combat operations, whether enemy or friendly initiated, in South Vietnam during the Vietnam War. VNDBA is part of the Operations Analysis (OPSANAL) system.

        Record Group 335: Records of the Office of the Secretary of the Army

          Battalion Tracking Study Files, 10/1/1966 - 3/31/1969
          National Archives Identifier:644345
          Data Files: 55 (ASCII)
          Technical Documentation: 61 pages
          Online Access: Download

        This series contains data for 48 U.S. Army ground combat battalions that were located in III Corps during the Vietnamese Conflict. The data was compiled as part of a study on the exposure of U.S. Army personnel to Agent Orange. It was created in conjunction with the series "Vietnam Experience Study Files, 1967 - 1968" (see Data about U.S. Military Personnel).

        Record Group 338: Records of U.S. Army Operational, Tactical, and Support Organizations

          Records About Combat Operations by Army Units and Their Use and Loss of Military Supplies During the Vietnam War (COLED-V), 7/1/1967 - 6/30/1970
          National Archives Identifier:572881
          Data Files: 6 (ASCII)
          Technical Documentation: 32 pages
          Online Access: DownloadSearch

        These records contain information about the use and the loss of military supplies, such as ammunition and equipment, by unit and by type of combat activity during the Vietnam War.

        Record Group 472: Records of the U.S. Forces in Southeast Asia

          Ground Operations Reporting System (GORS) Files for the Army of the Republic of South Vietnam, 1967 - 3/29/1973
          National Archives Identifier:609200
          Data Files: 80 (ASCII Rendered) (NIPS version available)
          Technical Documentation: 262 pages and 5 electronic layout files
          Online Access:Download

        This series contains information on ground combat missions involving military units of the Army of the Republic of South Vietnam during the Vietnam War.

        Data specific to Air Military Operations and Activities

        Record Group 218: Records of the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff

          Combat Air Activities Files (CACTA), 10/1965 - 12/1970
          National Archives Identifier:634496
          Data Files: 32 (ASCII Translated) (NIPS version available)
          Technical Documentation: 160 pages and 2 electronic layout files
          Online Access: DownloadSearch

        This series contains bimonthly data on air combat missions flown in Southeast Asia by U.S. and allied forces during the first part of the Vietnam War. It is the predecessor to the series "Records About Air Sorties Flown in Southeast Asia, 1/1970 - 6/1975." These CACTA files contain two months of data, with some gaps. There is some duplication between these CACTA files and those in Record Group 529 and there are some records in one version that are not in the other and vice versa.

        This series contains data on Fixed-Wing Aircraft Combat and Combat Support Sorties for U.S. and South Vietnam military forces. These files came from Headquarters, Pacific Command (PACOM) via the Survivability /Vulnerability Information Analysis Center (SURVIAC) [Wright-Patterson Air Force Base].

        This series contains data on air warfare missions flown over Southeast Asia during the Vietnam War. NARA received three files from the U.S. Joint cheifs of Staff via the National Military Command Systems Support Center and nine files from Headquarters, Pacific Commaand (PACOM) via the Survivability/Vulnerability Information Analysis Center (SURVIAC) [Wright-Patterson Air Force Base]. There may be some duplication between the sets of files.

        This series contains data on air combat missions flown in Southeast Asia by the Strategic Air Command (SAC) during the Vietnam War.

        This series consists of files with records on air combat missions flown in Southeast Asia by U.S. and allied forces during the last part of the Vietnam War. It is the successor to the series "Combat Air Activities Files (CACTA), 10/1965 - 12/1970."

        Record Group 330: Records of the Office of the Secretary of Defense

          Herbicide File, 1965 - 1971
          National Archives Identifier:623176
          Data Files: 4 versions: Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) de-NIPS'd version NARA de-NIPS'd version National Academy of Science (NAS) version and Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) Revised version
          Technical Documentation: 70 pages
          Online Access: Download

        This series contains data on herbicide spraying missions, including the use of Agent Orange, during the Vietnam War.

        Record Group 341: Records of Headquarters U.S. Air Force (Air Staff)

        • Airlift Operations Data Files, 10/1/1966 - 4/30/1972
          National Archives Identifier:630623
          Data Files: 140 (ASCII Rendered) for ALOREP 85 (ASCII Rendered) for MACAL (NIPS version available for ALOREP and MACAL)
          Technical Documentation: 18 pages and 2 electronic documentation files for ALOREP 14 pages and 3 electronic documentation files for MACAL
          Online Access:Download
          This series contains sortie-level data on the operational employment of airlift resources during the Vietnam War. The series includes the Airlift Operations Files (ALOREP) and Military Airlift Command Airlift Operations Report (MACAL) files.

        Record Group 529: Records of U.S. Pacific Command

          Combat Air Activities Files (CACTA), 10/1/1965 - 1/31/1971
          National Archives Identifier:2123846
          Data Files: 50 (ASCII Translated) (NIPS version also available)
          Technical Documentation: 50 pages NARA prepared documentation, 1 electronic layout file (for agency documentation see CACTA RG 218)
          Online Access: Download

        This series contains monthly data on air combat missions flown in Southeast Asia by U.S. and allied forces. These CACTA files are mostly by month, with some gaps. There is some duplication between these CACTA files and those in Record Group 218 and there are some records in one version that are not in the other and vice versa.

        This series contains data identifying reconnaissance objectives, imagery requests, and imagery characteristics for imagery reconnaissance missions flown over Southeast Asia during the Vietnam War.

        Data specific to Sea Military Operations and Activities

        Record Group 38: Records of the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations

          Records About Hostile Fire Against U.S. and Australian Warships During the Vietnam War, 10/25/1966 - 4/5/1970 (also known as Hostile Fire File (HOSTA))
          National Archives Identifier:572877
          Data Files: 1 (ASCII)
          Technical Documentation: 23 pages (includes full printout of file)
          Online Access: Download

        This series contains information about combat incidents of hostile fire directed at U.S. and Australian warships patrolling North and South Vietnamese waters in the South China Sea.

        Record Group 218: Records of the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff

          Records About Naval Gunfire Support During the Vietnam War, 3/1966 - 1/1973 (also known as Combat Naval Gunfire Support File (CONGA))
          National Archives Identifier:572874
          Data Files: 1 (de-NIPS'd) (NIPS version available)
          Technical Documentation: 274 pages
          Online Access: DownloadSearch

        This series contains data from daily and weekly Operations Summary Reports (OPREP-5) that document naval gunfire support missions.

        This series contains data from two military operations during the Vietnamese Conflict, Operation Linebacker and Operation Pocket Money, which concerned all mining operations conducted against North Vietnamese interior waterways and harbors.

        This series contains information on operation Market Time (surveillance of the coastline of South Vietnam) and operation Game Warden (patrolling South Vietnamese rivers).

        Data specific to Tactical Military Intelligence

        Record Group 472: Records of the U.S. Forces in Southeast Asia

          Small Unit Combat Actions Files, 1969 - 1970 (also known as Integrated Tactical Data File (ITDF))
          National Archives Identifier:610020
          Data Files: 3 (EBCDIC)
          Technical Documentation: 203 pages

        This series contains records on small unit combat actions reported in the Corps Tactical Zone of the I field Force Vietnam (IFFV).

        This series contains records of small unit combat actions reported in the Corps Tactical Zone of the Third Marine Amphibious Force (III MAP) during the Vietnam War.

        Data about U.S. Military Personnel

        Series containing data on U.S. military casualties are described in a separate reference report, Records of U.S. Military Casualties, Missing in Action, and Prisoners of War from the Era of the Vietnam War.

        Record Group 335: Records of the Office of the Secretary of the Army

          Vietnam Experience Study Files, 1967 - 1968
          National Archives Identifier:648567
          Data Files: 8 (ASCII)
          Technical Documentation: 72 pages
          Online Access: Download

        This series contains data on selected Army personnel who served in the Vietnamese conflict during 1967 and 1968 and were assigned to units tracked in the series "Battalion Tracking Study File, 10/1/1966 - 3/31/1969" (see Data specific to Land Military Operations and Activities). Public use versions of the files are available.

        Record Group 472: Records of the U.S. Forces in Southeast Asia

          Records of Awards and Decorations of Honor During the Vietnam War (also known as Awards and Decorations System (AWADS))
          National Archives Identifier:604413
          Data Files: 1 (ASCII)
          Technical Documentation: 131 pages
          Online Access: DownloadSearch

        This series contains information about some of the awards and decorations of honor awarded to U.S. military officers, soldiers, and sailors, and to allied foreign military personnel. A public use version is available.

        Data about Vietnamese and Allied Military Forces

        Record Group 218: Records of the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff

          Southeast Asia Casualty File (SEACA), 1/27/1973 - 4/20/1975
          National Archives Identifier:630221
          Data Files: 1 (NIPS)
          Technical Documentation: 16 pages
          Online Access:Download

        This series contains counts of the number of war casualties during the ceasefire period. Casualty counts include South Vietnam civilians, Army of the Republic of Vietnam forces, North Vietnamese Army, and Viet Cong.

        Record Group 330: Records of the Office of the Secretary of Defense

          Cambodian Friendly Units Files, 1/1970 - 3/1973
          National Archives Identifier:610063
          Data Files: 1 (ASCII Translated) (NIPS version available)
          Technical Documentation: 32 pages and 1 documentation (layout) file
          Online Access: DownloadSearch

        This series contains data on over 900 military units in the Cambodian Armed Forces (Forces Armees Nationales Khmeres (FANK)) that were friendly to the allied side during the Cambodian War and the Vietnam War.

        This series contains monthly data on the total number of policemen within the South Vietnamese National Police Force by both administrative unit and assigned police function.

        Also known as the Army and Marine Forces Evaluation System Monthly Activity (AMFESMA), this series contains monthly activity data on the effectiveness of the armed forces of the Republic of South Vietnam. AMFESMA was part of the System to Evaluate the Effectiveness of the Republic of Vietnam Forces (SEER). There is an additional file, Army and Marine Forces Monthly Activity (AMFSA), that covers 1968.

        This series contains information relating to personnel, training, unit deployment, military readiness, and operations of Vietnam Armed Forces. It is the predecessor to the series "Monthly Reports of Vietnamese Regional and Popular Forces, 4/1970 - 9/1972."

        Record Group 472: Records of the U.S. Forces in Southeast Asia

          Monthly Reports of Vietnamese Regional and Popular Forces, 4/1970 - 9/1972
          National Archives Identifier:598773
          Data Files: 1 (EBCDIC) for TFES 1 (EBCDIC) for VNUS
          Technical Documentation: 66 pages
          Online Access: Download

        This series consists of the Territorial Forces Evaluation System (TFES) and Vietnamese/United States System (VNUS). Both systems contain data on the combat effectiveness of regional and popular forces with South Vietnam. These systems were merged and expanded into the "Territorial Forces Analysis Reporting System (TFARS) Files, 9/1972 - 4/1974."

        This series contains information on local defense forces, such as the number of people in combat training, the number and type of weapons in each hamlet, the number of friendly and enemy casualties, the training status of defense units, and if the defense unit engaged in combat, along with demographic information. The agency used the data to evaluate the progress and effectiveness of various components of local defense forces.

        This series contains information about personnel with the Vietnamese (Republic of Vietnam) Air Force.

        This series contains data on national police units and correction centers. It was used in conjunction with the National Police Infrastructure Analysis Subsystems (NPIASS).

        Data related to Intelligence Gathering and Pacification Efforts

        Record Group 330: Records of the Office of the Secretary of Defense

          Hamlet Evaluation System (HES) Files, 1967 - 1974
          National Archives Identifier:4616225
          Data Files: 98 (ASCII Rendered) (de-NIPS'd and NIPS version available)
          Technical Documentation: varies per file(s) (343 pages total, plus supplemental documentation)
          Online Access: Download

        This series contains geopolitical and demographic information for South Vietnamese villages and hamlets, along with observation ratings relating to security conditions and socio-economic factors in each village and hamlet.

        This series contains monthly public opinion poll responses from Vietnamese interviewees in both rural and urban areas about the Vietnamese Conflict, Cambodian War, Pacification Program, economic conditions, and other public issues. Interviewers memorized the survey questions, used indirect questioning techniques to obtain the responses, and then memorized the responses.

        Record Group 472: Records of the U.S. Forces in Southeast Asia

          Hamlet Evaluation System (HES), 1969 - 1973
          National Archives Identifier:18556191
          Data Files: 1 (EBCDIC, variable-length records)
          Technical Documentation: none compiled

        This series contains geopolitical and demographic information for South Vietnamese villages and hamlets, along with observation ratings relating to security conditions and socio-economic factors in each village and hamlet.

        This series contains two subsystems of the National Police Infrastructure Analysis Subsystems (NPIASS I and NPIASS II) that have information about Viet Cong (VC) infrastructure by position and name, and document by dossier suspected VC members and the countermeasures taken against each suspect. A public use version of NPIASS II is available.

        This series also contains the following electronic documentation files:

        • Hamlet Evaluation System (HES) / Viet Cong Infrastructure (VCI) Gazetteer, 1971-1973
        • Hamlet Evaluation System (HES) Gazetteer Source File, 1971-1973
        • Hamlet Evaluation System (HES) Gazetteer, 1971-1973
        • Greenbook File

        The gazetteer files include codes and names for the geographic levels of Province, District, Village, and/or Hamlet, along with codes for the Corps Region, population numbers, ratings, and Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) coordinates. The files may serve as the source for the meanings for the district, village, and hamlet codes used in Hamlet Evaluation System (HES) and other related Vietnam War data files. The Greenbook file contains a table of all Viet Cong Infrastructure (VCI) political position codes, position title, and reporting level indicators.

        This series contains monthly public opinion poll responses from Vietnamese interviewees in both rural and urban areas about the Vietnamese Conflict, Cambodian War, Pacification Program, economic conditions and other public issues. Interviewers used memorized the survey questions, used indirect questioning techniques to obtain the responses, and then memorized the responses.

        Also known as the Phung Hoang Management Information System (PHMIS), this file contains biographical data on all suspected or confirmed members of the Viet Cong. A public use version is available.

        Data related to Logistics

        Record Group 472: Records of the U.S. Forces in Southeast Asia

          Automated Movement Management System Files [MACAMMS], 1968 - 1972
          National Archives Identifier:609199
          Data Files: 9 (ASCII)
          Technical Documentation: 184 pages basic documentation (estimated 600 pages supplemental)
          Online Access:Download

        This series contains records that broadly describe shipments of cargo within and away from South Vietnam.

        This series contains information on supplies and requisitions for the Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces

        Output Formats

        Contact staff for more details about specific files

        During the Vietnam War, the Department of Defense used an early data base management system called the National Military Command System (NMCS) Information Processing System 360 Formatted File System, commonly known as NIPS. The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) developed the system. NIPS allowed users the ability to structure files, generate and maintain files, revise and update data, select and retrieve data, and generate reports. In some ways, NIPS supported relational database functionality.

        Department of Defense agencies transferred to NARA many of the data files created during the Vietnam War in the software-dependent NIPS format. Although most of the file contains data, the beginning of the file consists of supporting information used during file maintenance, data retrieval, and output processing. The data are composed of fixed, non-repeating data with repeating subsets (i.e. a one-to-many relationship). The data are organized into the following sets of elements or tables:

        • Control Set, containing the unique record identifier that links to the Fixed Set and Periodic Sets
        • Fixed Set, containing non-repetitive data and
        • Periodic Sets, containing fields that can be repeated as needed there can be more than one type of Periodic Set.

        For example, a record for a military mission in a NIPS file would include a control set that contains a unique identifier or fields that can be combined to create a unique identifier a fixed set with data about the mission as a whole a periodic set with data about the ordnance used in the mission that would be repeated for each type of ordnance used in the mission and a periodic set about the losses incurred in the mission repeated for each type of loss incurred. Therefore, a single mission record would consist of the control set, fixed set, none-to-many periodic sets per ordnance, and none-to-many periodic sets per loss.

        In addition, NIPS files can include Variable Sets that appear only when data is present. These sets are usually "Comments" data in a free-text field of variable length. Data records in NIPS files are usually of varying length since the number of periodic sets vary for each record. NARA only provides exact copies of NIPS files.

        De-NIPS'd

        In the late 1970s and early 1980s, NARA staff "de-NIPS'd" or reformatted some of the files transferred in the NIPS format, outputting the data in a flat-file format using then-standard EBCDIC encoding. This was done in order to have a software-independent version of the data. However the "de-NIPSing" process output some numeric fields in a zoned decimal format these fields usually need to be reformatted before using with contemporary software.

        In addition, the NIPS records have a control set, fixed set, and periodic set of fields. In the "de-NIPS'd" version, the control set or the fixed set of fields may appear in the first instance of the record, but may not appear in the subsequent instances with multiple periodic set fields for that record, which immediately follow the first instance. For example, the first instance of a record would be a row in the database containing the control set, fixed set, and the first periodic set. If there are multiple periodic sets for that record, the next row would only include the control set and the second periodic set, followed by another row with the control set and the third periodic set, and so forth for each periodic set. Therefore the records are preserved in a specific sequential order and need to be "read" by the computer in that order. "De-NIPS'd" files may contain fixed-length or variable-length records. NARA only provides exact copies of de-NIPS'd files.

        ASCII Translated

        In 2002, NARA staff and volunteers developed computer programs written in Common Business-Oriented Language (COBOL) to translated the NIPS files into ASCII, fixed-length records per each periodic set that contained the control set, fixed set, and periodic set fields. This format allows users to sort the records (i.e. the records are no longer in a sequential order).

        ASCII Rendered

        In 2007, NARA staff developed another software program, NIPSTRAN, to convert the NIPS files into more usable ASCII rendered tables. The program produces a table for the fixed set and tables for each periodic set. The tables function like a relational-database with one-to-many relationship (i.e. one fixed set record to many periodic set records). All the records in the tables include the corresponding control set fields to allow for linking between the fixed set table and periodic set table(s). The records in the tables are fixed-length and there may be versions of the tables where the records are field delimited.

        EBCDIC and/or Binary

        If not in the NIPS format, most of the other Vietnam War data files in NARA's custody are preserved in EBCDIC encoding. Some of these files may include binary characters, fields with zoned decimal data, variable-length records with binary counters, or other aspects that require the file be reformatted before using with contemporary software and may not properly auto-convert to ASCII. NARA can only offer exact copies of these files.

        Selected Supplemental Documentation

        Civil Operations and Rural Development Support (CORDS), Research and Analysis Directorate, Hamlet Evaluation System (HES) Command Manual, Document No. DAR R70-79 CM-01B, Military Assistance Command Vietnam, 1 September 1971. (RG 472 108 pages)

        Civil Operations and Rural Development Support (CORDS), Research and Analysis Directorate, Hamlet Evaluation System (HES) Operations Manual, Document No. DAR R70 OM-01A, Military Assistance Command Vietnam, June 1972. (RG 472 150-200 pages)

        Defense Communications Agency, Command and Control Technical Center, NMCS Information Processing System 306 Formatted File System (NIPS 360 FFS) General Description, Computer System Manual Number CSM GS 15-17, 1 September 1978. (41 pages)

        Defense Communications Agency, Command and Control Technical Center, NMCS Information Processing System 306 Formatted File System (NIPS 360 FFS) Volume I Introduction to File Concepts, Computer System Manual Number CSM UM 15-78, 1 September 1978. (106 pages)

        National Military Command System Support Center, The Operation Analysis System (OPSANAL) User's Manual (Revision A), Computer System Manual Number CSM UM63A-68, 30 September 1969. (405 pages)

        Selected Additional Resources

        Adams, Margaret O. "Vietnam Records in the National Archives: Electronic Records." Prologue 23 (Spring 1991): 76-84.

        Carter, G. A., et al. An Interim Guide to Southeast Asia Combat Data. Prepared for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency by Rand (WN-8718-ARPA). Santa Monica, CA: Rand, June 1974.

        Carter, G. A., et al. A User's Guide to Southeast Asia Combat Data. Prepared for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency by Rand (R-1815-ARPA). Santa Monica, CA: Rand, June 1976.

        Eliot, Duong Van Mai. RAND in Southeast Asia: a history of the Vietnam War era. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2010.

        Harrison, Donald F. "Machine-Readable Sources for the Study of the War in Vietnam." In Databases in the Humanities and Social Sciences-4: Proceedings of the International Conference on Databases in the Humanities and Social Sciences, July, 1987, ed. Lawrence J. McCrank. Medford, NJ: Learned Information, Inc, 1989.

        Thayer, Thomas C., ed. A System Analysis View of the Vietnam War: 1965-1972, 12 volumes, 1975. These volumes contain articles printed in the "Southeast Asia Analysis Report" from January 1967 to January 1972. The volumes include:


        Identification of radio equipment and its purpose in Vietnam - History

        Advances in technology have given people more ways to access an increasing amount of information. Local and international news can be read in the newspaper, listened to on radio, watched on television and found on cell-phones or online. For those with access to these options, a wealth of information is always readily available. In countries where free expression is suppressed, access to technology is expensive or illiteracy rates are high, radio continues to play an important role in information sharing.

        Reporting over international airwaves

        Radio broadcasts can provide real-time information, broadcasted 24 hours a day to provide the most recent updates to listeners. Stations have the ability to reach across borders and become a source of information where reliable news is scarce. When access to the internet is blocked and phone lines are cut, people can still search the airwaves for trustworthy sources. Even electricity is not a necessity for battery operated and hand-cranked radios.

        Radio Free Europe (RFE) was originally started during the Cold War with a single broadcast to communist Czechoslovakia out of New York City in 1950. Now, 60 years later, they broadcast in 21 countries using 28 different languages. Working in countries where an independent press has either been banned by the government or not well-established, RFE provides uncensored news to its listeners. Developments in radio technology continue to increase the range and clarity of broadcasts over farther distances, allowing listeners to tune in to stations in different countries and continents. Technological growth also means that the cost of broadcasting is lower, and the number of radio stations is increasing internationally.

        The Economist reported in 2010 that world news stations such as the BBC have steadily been losing listeners as competition increases. In the 12 months prior to the August article, the BBC had lost eight million listeners. Other large news agencies such as Al Jazeera are moving into new markets and attracting listeners. However, large news agencies must compete with an increasing number of local stations. Community radio has the ability to provide news tailored to a smaller population, reporting on local issues that would not make international headlines.

        BROADCASTING AT THE LOCAL LEVEL

        According to Farm Radio International, a charitable organization which supports rural radio broadcasters in 39 African countries, radio remains one of the best communication tools for the rural poor. It is ideal for low-income populations and sparsely-populated areas since radios are affordable and broadcasts can reach a wide audience. In countries where access to the internet is limited and illiteracy rates are high, radio stations play a major role in sharing news and educational information.

        The last decade has seen a dramatic increase in radio stations across Africa, especially locally-run community stations. While new technologies such as satellite, online and cell-phone radio are increasing, none have reached the simplicity and effectiveness of traditional radio. According to a 2010 survey by AudienceScapes, in Kenya 87% of those surveyed had radios at home, 71% had a phone and only 11% could access the internet at home.

        Radio journalists at risk

        Radio journalists are at risk of harassment, intimidation and physical threats for their work. Stations around the world have had their signals blocked, their licenses to broadcast revoked and have been the target of attacks. Violations such as those below demonstrate that radio remains a powerful tool in disseminating information and are perceived as threats by some governments. Somalia and China are examples of countries where the authorities have taken steps to silence radio broadcasts.

        Radio station continues to operate amid internal strife in Somalia

        CJFE ranked Somalia as the deadliest country in Africa for journalists in 2010. Three journalists were killed in Somalia that year alone, and all worked for radio stations. In a country that has not had a stable government since 1991, there is ongoing violence between militias and the transitional federal government.

        In the midst of this, independent media Radio Shabelle continues to operate under dangerous conditions. The station’s journalists and staff are routinely harassed, arrested and killed. Five journalists and staff have been killed since October 2007. Other Radio Shabelle journalists have been threatened for reporting on corruption at a Mogadishu port and assaulted for attempting to cover a football ceremony. In March 2011, the station’s editor Abdi Mohamed Ismael and director Abdirashid Omar Qase were arrested for four days for allegedly broadcasting false reports and helping terrorists. The station had aired a report about security concerns in a region controlled by government and African Union forces. The Interior Ministry also ordered the station to sign a letter agreeing not to broadcast negative reporting about the government. Radio Shabelle refused.

        Chinese pressure results in arrests in Vietnam and Indonesia

        Two Vietnamese radio operators were arrested in June 2010 for broadcasting programming from Vietnam into China about Falun Gong, a spiritual movement which has been banned by the Chinese government since 1999. The trial for Vu Duc Trung and Le Van Thanh, who are both Falun Gong members, was due to begin on April 8, 2011, but has been postponed. Reporters Without Borders found that their arrests came after pressure from the Chinese government. They were initially charged for operating without a permit but criminal charges were added later and they could face jail time of up to five years if convicted. Their lawyers have argued that the charges should not stand since Falun Gong is not banned in Vietnam.

        In Indonesia, the manager of a Falun Gong-affiliated station, Radio Era Baru, was arrested and tried in late March. Gatot Machali is currently awaiting the court’s decision on charges of "broadcasting without authorization and disrupting neighbouring frequencies," a violation of the Telecommunications Law which carries a maximum sentence of six-years’ imprisonment. The station broadcasts stories about human rights abuses against Falun Gong practitioners, Tibetans and Uighurs in mandarin. Reporters Without Bordersbelieves that his arrest is also a result of pressure from the Chinese government. The Jakarta Postreported that the Chinese embassy in Indonesia has repeatedly pressured local authorities to take action against the station.

        Despite the fact that radio broadcasting puts both journalists and the stations they work for at risk, they continue to exist because there is a readership that values their news and information. Radio continues to be a widely used medium for reporting both local and international news. Advances in technology may have led to the emergence of a broad range of media outlets and platforms, but it has also made the radio more accessible for populations that lack access to other means of information technology, which is why it is still very much relevant today.


        Identification of radio equipment and its purpose in Vietnam - History

        The field gear used by the armed forces during WWII saw several advancements in its design and functionality. At the start of the war the US armed forces were poorly prepared. Much of the equipment was WWI vintage, cumbersome to use and more fitting for a horse mounted army than a mechanized unit.

        American inginuity at work produced new materials and designs. Items such as camouflaged backpacks and waterproofing were introduced. Newer and better radio equipment was also employed. Experimental plastic canteens and paratrooper gear were also developed.

        This page is dedicated to the study of some of the field gear from the period. Information provided allows the user to identify WWII US gear and find out the value of the collectables. Helping to answer two fundamental questions: What do I have? and How much is it worth?

        This information is brought to you courtesy of MilitaryItems.com , a provider of military antiques and collectibles for schools, museums and the public in general.

        WWII US Ammunition, ammo boxes, pouches, belts and ammunition related gear

        WWII US Military Hardware related combat equipment

        WWII US military field gear, shovels, tables, compasses and general equipment

        WWII US Inert Weapons and explosives

        WWII US Military Backpacks and Bags

        WWII US Military Gas Masks and Gas Mask Bags

        WWII US Military Medical Related Items

        WWII US Military Books, Photos, Postcards and Paper Items

        WWII US Military binoculars, sights, cameras and other optical devices.

        WWII US Military boots, shoes and related footwear.

        WWII US Military walkie talkies, radios, field phones and other comminucation equipment.

        WWII US MILITARY BOOKS AND PAPERWORK

        This section covers books published by the United States government and other organizations during World War Two. Other items covered includes Training manuals, unit histories, yearbooks and related publications.

        US ARMY LEARN FRENCH TRAINING BOOK - This is a training manual for communicating with French people. paperback book issued to armed forces personnel during WWII.

        US ARMY LEARN GERMAN TRAINING BOOK - This is a training manual for communicating with German people. paperback book issued to armed forces personnel during WWII.

        US ARMY LEARN ITALIAN TRAINING BOOK - This is a training manual for communicating with Italian people. paperback book issued to armed forces personnel during WWII.

        US ARMY AIR FORCE PILOT ORIENTATION BOOKLET - This is a booklet distributed to all pilot candidates during the initial training courses. Basic flight concepts are explained in the form of a comic book.

        US ARMY OF OCCUPATION IN EUROPE INSTRUCTIONS - This foldout provided instructions to American occupation forces as to how to deal with the German population. This item was widely distributed.

        WWII US NAVAL RECOGNITION BOOKLET - Training was one of the most important things for a soldier. This booklet is a classified set of drawings and information regarding military ships.

        US ARMY AIR FORCE PHOTO ALBUM - Of brown leather construction with a large Army Air Force logo executed in gold at front center. Purchased at local stores of base PX's.

        WWII US ARMY DIARY - Some of the American soldiers could purchase this diary at the PX of the base. It was a good way to record their experience in the military, collect phone numbers and addresses, etc.

        WWII US MILITARY BACKPACKS AND BAGS

        This section discusses the backpacks employed by the US armed forces during World War Two. Most of the backpacks were poorly design. They were left over from the WWI era. Often times they were very small and did not hold enough items or they were very difficult to use. An exception is the mountain troops backpack. It introduced a main section with large cargo capacity. Three pockets sewn to the outside of this area. It also utilized a metal frame. This backpack was the inspiration to the ALICE pack to be used in the Vietnam war.

        WWII US ARMY M1928 HAVERSACK - Of canvis construction. Khaki color. Multiple straps allow the pack to be closed. The system was not very useful as it was difficult for the soldiers to access items.

        WWII US ARMY M-1936 MUSSETTE BAG - Khaki color. Of canvis construction. two flaps secure the main flap closed. A separate strip with two metal gromets allows equipment sucg as entrenching tools to be attached.

        WWII US ARMY 1942 HAVERSACK - The Haversack was a backpack system leftover from WWI. Of canvis construction. A series of harnesses are connected to allow the soldier to carry it as a backpack.

        WWII US ARMY M-1936 MUSSETTE BAG - Of canvis construction. The Mussette bag could be carried over the shoulder or be outfitted as a small backpack. A flap closes the main compartment. US marked on flap.

        WWII US ARMY MOUNTAIN TROOPS BACKPACK - Of canvis construction. This was the first backpack to include a built-in metal frame that countoured to the body. Main compartment has three pockets attached to it.

        WWII US ARMY JUNGLE OLIVE DRAB BACKPACK - This is the jungle backpack used by the Army and Marine Corps. of canvis construction with one large compartment. The flap secures contents in place. experimental model.

        WWII USMC JUNGLE CAMOUFLAGED BACKPACK - This is the jungle backpack used by the US Marine Corps in the South Pacific. Of canvis construction with a camo pattern applied all throughout.

        WWII US ARMY INVASION RUBBER PACK - keeping items dry during an amphibious invasion was a challenge. This rubberized multi-purpose bad was developed for this purpose. Black in color with carrying straps attached.

        US MILITARY AND CIVILIAN GAS MASKS

        WWI saw a fair amount of use of gas during trench warfare. The results of gas attack were horrific. After seeing that, both Allied and Axis armed forces went into battle during WWII with a variety of gas masks. This section provides a view of the chemical protection equipment employed during World War Two. Information includes identification and a price guide for US equipment.

        WWII US CIVILIAN GAS MASK - This is an example of the complete gas mask kit issued to civilians. The mask is of rubber body construction and has the filter attached to the front. Comes in a cardboard box.

        WWII US CIVILIAN GAS MASK - This is another example of a gas mask issued to the civilian population. Of gray rubber construction. The mask was issued with a lightweight carrying bag. paper instructions are present.

        WWII US ARMY GAS MASK FILTER - This is a canister containing the gas mask filter for the standard US Army gas mask. A key is attached to the top for ease of opening. Instructions are printed on the can.

        WWII US NAVY GAS MASK - This is the standard gas mask issued to US navy personnel. very interesting design where the filter is attached to the mask via the use of two accordion hoses.

        WWII US ARMY GAS MASK - This is another example of the standard US Army gas mask. No carrying bag is displayed here. The mask has a series of elastic straps which secure it to the soldier's head.

        WWII US ARMY GAS MASK - This is the standard gas mask for the army. The mask itself is made of gray rubber. A hose attached the filter which is carryed in a canvis bag. The bag attaches to the soldier via straps.

        WWII US CIVILIAN CHILD GAS MASK - Rubberized main body with clear plastic oversized lenses. Gray in color. A metal filter screws to the front of the mask. Instructions are written on the filter.

        WWII US CS HAND GRANADE - Complete with the hard to find cardboard carrying case. The case opens in two at mid-point. They were thrown out after use. The granade has a metal body. Similar design to modern grenades.

        Medical military items are an interesting field of collecting. The field gear employed by US armed forces during World War Two were primarily manufactured of canvis. The following section discusses the various types of medical field equipment employed by US forces in World War Two. The present value of the medical collectibles is also discussed.

        WWII US FIELD FIRST AID POUCH - Of canvis construction. Khaki color. This pouch was employed to carry the Carlisle First Aid pouch. The letters "US" are stamped with black ink.

        WWII US ARMY FIRST AID JUNGLE KIT - This is the First Aid kit that was issued to soldiers in the South Pacific. Of canvis construction. Olive Drab color. The main flap has two metal snaps. The back has a wire hook.

        WWII US ARMY PARATROOPER MEDICAL POUCH - This is an oversize canvis bag that was employed to air-drop medical supplies to troops. The main flap has three heavy duty straps with metal buckles. US marked with black ink.

        WWII US SURGICAL FIELD KIT BAG - This is a canvis roll with canvis strips added for re-enforcement. Multiple openings are available and used to place medical instruments inside. Black ink is used to mark the front.

        WWII PARATROOPER MEDICAL FIELD BAG - This is a large canvis bag with a flap that has three canvis straps with metal buckles which close the lid. Many medical supplies could be air dropped to troops.

        WWII US ARMY COMBAT MEDIC BAG - of canvis construction. Rectangular shape. Extra flaps with metal gromets are attached to the sides. This is one of two bags carried by the medics.

        WWII US ARMY JEEP FIRST AID KIT - This is a metal box with hinges on one side. Snaps are placed on the other side. Used to carry first aid supplies. The box attaches to the back of the seat of a jeep.

        WWII US FIELD FIRST AID POUCH - This is the Olive drab version of the Carlisle pouch. Usually issued to troops in the south Pacific. Of canvis construction. A single metal snap is found in the front.

        The World War Two era saw a feverish revolution in the development of weapons. This section covers some of the items employed in the various theaters of operation by the armed forces of the United States. Many of these items were brought back by GI's and were de-activated to become war souvenirs. This section of the website provides the collector and enthusiast with information regarding the value of US WWII inert weapons.

        WWII US INERT PINEAPPLE GRENADE - Known as the pineapple grenade due to its shape. This was the standard grenade of the American forces during WWII.

        WWII US THOMPSON MACHINE GUN - This was the standard automatic weapon issued to US officers during WWII. .45 Caliber. The weapon came with different capacity magazines including a drum.

        WWII US ARMY LAND MINE - Round shape mine with a four point grid on top. This is the type of mine that was carried on the side of the halftracks during WWII.

        WWII US ARMY PRACTICE GRENADE - Of metal construction. Hollowed center. No moving parts. Same shape and weight as the real thing. Used to teach soldiers how to throw grenades.

        WWII US LUGER CAST MODEL - Of metal construction. No moving parts. This is a replica of the 9mm Luger pistol. This item may have been manufactured as a toy or training device.

        WWII US COLT .45 CAST MODEL - Of metal construction. No moving parts. This is a replica of the Colt .45 pistol. This item may have been manufactured as a toy or training device.

        WWII US BAZOOKA ROUND - This is the explosive round for the standard bazooka used by the American troops during WWII. The bazooka was used in both theaters.

        WWII US 100LB CEMENT PRACTICE BOMB - B-17's and other bombers employed cement bombs during their practice runs. Oval shape with two rebar hooks attached to the top.

        The optics employed during World War Two were greatly improved when compared to previous conflicts. In most cases all branches of the service shared the same optics. For example, armored troops employed the same type of goggles as did pilots. However, in other instances very specific optical tools were developed for specific purposes. B-17 crew had multi-lense goggles to better view tracers from .50 caliber machine guns.

        WWII US AAF AIRCRAFT WING CAMARA - This camera was mounted on the wing of several aircraft and is responsible for some of the war footage that is available now. Heavy duty black body.

        WWII US ARMY M1910A1 ARTILLERY SCOPE - This is a heavy duty scope which was used for artillery sighting. Complete with the wooden tripod. The optics are high quality. Some models had electric lights.

        WWII US ARMY WINTER GOGGLES - This is a set of goggles that was given to Mountain troop personnel. Flexible body with dark black glass lenses. Elastic strap.

        WWII US AAF B-18 FLIGHT GOGGLES - This is a set of general purpose goggles that was issued primarily to flight personnel. Rubberized black frames with plastic lenses whose colors could be changed.

        1943 US NAVY MARK 28 BINOCULARS - Of black painted metal body. The lenses were of fair quality. Employed by US Navy personnel. Comes with a black plastic carrying case.

        1943 US NAVY MARK 33 BINOCULARS - This set is made of black painted metal. Rough surface where hand makes contact. Deisgned for better grip. Manufactured by Universal Camera Corporation.

        US ARMY AIR FORCE P-51 CAMARA - Heavy duty black metal construction with four posts to facilitate placement on the wing of a plane. Back compartment opens to house the film. Nicely marked.

        WWII US ARMY 8X30 BINOCULARS - Manufactured in Rochester New York by the Crown Optical Corporation. Nicely marked. Lenses are of fair quality. Heavy duty body type.

        The United States armed forces largely employed the same type of footwear for the various theaters of operation. However, some exceptions can be found in cases such as USMC troops in the pacific, US Army mountain troops and US AAF bomber crews.

        WWII US UNMOUNTED LEGGINGS - Of light canvis construction. Multiple eyelets and hooks are placed alongside the entire length of the legging. Bottom section has a strap to secure the boot.

        WWII US ARMY PARATROOPER BOOTS - Of brown leather construction. Multiple metal eyelets are placed along the side of the length of the boot. Manufactured by BF Goorwrich.

        WWII US ARMY DOUBLE BUCKLE BOOTS - The design of this pair of boots consists of a quarter size boot with an extra section of leather that has two straps and buckles. The idea was to provide extra support for the soldier.

        WWII USMC FLESH OUT BOOTS - This was the standard shoe for the Marine Corps soldiers fighting in the South pacific. Quarter size boot with a semi-smooth sole. Outer body has rough texture.

        WWII US ARMY QUARTER BOOTS - These are very similar to the full length boots except for their height. Of brown leather construction. Brown laces with metal tips. Size is stamped on the upper side.

        WWII US ARMY COMBAT BOOTS - This is the standard WWII boot. Used by army and paratrooper personnel. Lace up style. Of brown leather construction. The soles show some wear.

        WWII US AAF FLIGHT BOOT LINERS - These are light cotton booties that go over the regular boots or shoes. Of light black color. Retaining the origial tag. Army Air Force logo stamped on the side.

        WWII US ARMY LEATHER MOUNTED LEGGINS - Of black leather construction. Used by cavalry troops. The shape of the legging comforms to the shape of the calf. Top and bottom straps.

        Adbvances in technology were prominantly reflected in the communications field. World War Two was a showcase for new technology in the field of communications. This section covers the equipment employed in the batlefield as well as the packs and bags with which the equipment was carried.

        WWII US ARMY JEEP FIELD RADIO - communications in the field were crucial for victory. The US Jeep was at he forrefont of the battle field, therefore it had to have good radion equipment.

        WWII US EE8B FIELD TELEPHONE - This was the most commonly used field phone during the war. It was housed in a canvis or leather case. The side had an opening for the phone crank. Complete with shoulder strap.

        WWII US SHIP ANNOUNCING CONSOLE - large metal box with multiple switches in the front. A light indicated when the device is in use. A microphone is palced near the bottom section. gray in color.

        WWII US B1000 FIELD BACKPACK RADIO - This iconic radio saw action in all theaters of operation during WWII. The transmitter and receiver were housed in separate compartments. A set of shoulder straps allowed the radio to be acrried.

        WWII US RADIO CANVIS ANTENA BAG - Of canvis construction with reinforced leather applied to key stress areas. The bag is thin and has a series of small pockets where each piece of the antena fits securely.

        WWII US RADIO ANTENA BACKPACK - Of canvis construction. One main compartment with a flap that has two straps to secure the lid shut. This bag carries sections of the mast for the large radio antenas.

        WWII US FIELD CANVIS TELEGRAPH BAG - The telegraph was used extensively in WWII. This is a heavy duty canvis bag with leather reinforcements in the corners. One large shoulder strap was provided.

        WWII US ARMY FIELD OPERATOR SWITCHBOARD - The switchboard allowed the EE6 telephones to act in conjucntion. This was a critical function when a beach head is established. Of heavy duty construction.


        Military Uniforms, Gear & Equipment on Olive-Drab.com


        Rare World War II color photo of African-American engineers participating in nighttime flag ceremony, Ft. Belvoir, VA. Each soldiers is wearing a garrison cap, a wool Service Coat over wool shirt and trousers, with a cartridge belt. The rifle is the M1 Garand.

        Military equipment and gear are described on the individual pages or sub-sections of Olive-Drab.com for all the specific types. In addition to the sections linked below, weapons, military vehicles, and rations are covered in their own sections that you can find from the menu bar on the page top.

        • World War II
        • World War II
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        • Medical Kits and Equipment
          • World War II
            • Individual First Aid
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            • Militaria and collectibles, the tangible part of military history


            Marines in full combat gear look out from their truck in convoy, Marine barracks, New River, NC, May 1942.


            1960 – 1970

            In the mid-1950s, large numbers of people in their 20s and 30s, their prime working years, migrated to the big cities to become the driving force behind Japan’s post-war era of rapid economic growth. This meant that it fell on the women and the older folk to carry on struggling with the heavy load of farm work that they left behind. Keenly aware of this situation, Honda undertook the development of a multi-purpose tiller that could much more easily be used by women and older people. Fueled by the inspiration of total innovation in creating something new that had never existed before—something that would be ten years ahead of its time—Honda came out with its first tiller in 1959, which it called the F150.

            The F150 series tillers set off a Honda whirlwind in Japan’s rural areas.

            Compared to previous tillers, the F150 was compact, lightweight and remarkably easy to use while achieving a highly versatile functionality combined with rugged durability. Even in its styling, the F150’s mechanical parts were fully covered, its modern bodywork coated in a distinctive bright red body color.

            At the time, Japan’s total tiller market added up to only a few thousand units per year. However, the F150 recorded explosive sales as soon as it was released, and within the farm equipment industry it soon came to be called the ‘Honda whirlwind.’ Over 20,000 units were sold that year, and production continued for another 13 years with gradual improvements along the way. For farms that had been suffering from an acute shortage of labor, the compact, red Honda tiller proved to be an innovative agricultural machine that revolutionized Japan’s farm work environment.

            The next item Honda set out to develop was a portable generator. This was inspired by Sony’s recent invention of a transistorized portable television. Sony needed a power source that would allow it to be used anywhere, and Honda was singled out to undertake development of a portable generator that could be carried by hand.

            The compact E300 portable generator was busy in all sorts of scenes.

            Although its prototype never reached full production, the knowledge gained from its development was soon used in the development of later models of portable generators, and three years later Honda released the E300 compact portable generator. While ordinary generators of the time were often complicated and hard to start and operate, the little red E300 was small, lightweight, and simply looked easy to use. Just as new electrical devices were gaining popularity in Japan, the E300 marked the arrival of a portable power supply that anyone could use.

            The sheer convenience of this compact, quiet and smoke-free generator caused generator sales to skyrocket, whether on construction sites for use in lighting where night work had increased, or as backup power sources, or even among the general populace providing electrical power for outdoor lighting or nighttime food stalls.

            By the mid-1960s, Honda had become the dominate player in motorcycle World Grand Prix racing, leading to increased exports of its production motorcycles. Honda also began competing in Formula One racing soon after the release of its first production cars, the T360 mini truck and S360 sports car. Just as with the timing of its tillers and generators, Honda began to set its sights on the worldwide distribution of its general-purpose products, and soon reached an important turning point in its quest for globalization.

            As the nations of Southeast Asia were beginning to modernize and develop, they soon found need for cheap yet durable power sources. European or American diesel and two-stroke engines were already in wide use in Southeast Asia at the time, but Honda figured that it could supply cleaner and more compact 4-stroke engines that offered excellent performance and durability.

            Honda’s G series of full-scale general purpose engines could be seen hard at work not only in Japan, but around the world.

            In 1963, Honda decided to release the G20 and G30 general-purpose engines as lightweight and compact models that could be put to a wide range of uses. These were practical general-purpose engines that had been thoroughly designed for all-purpose use, with no compromises in the important areas of durability and reliability, and soon became an important part of daily life in applications such as outboard motors, generators, pumps and more.

            Around the same time, Honda’s tillers and generators were also beginning to be exported to Europe, the United States, Australia, Africa and other regions, and by 1967 general-purpose engines and related Power Products made up fully 70% of Honda's total exports.

            In 1968, to cope with the rapid growth of its general-purpose Power Products division, Honda switched to a fully integrated production system that incorporated research and development, planning and design, and production and sales. In 1969, the total cumulative production of Honda general-purpose power products surpassed 1 million units. As production numbers increased, greater effort was put into expanding the lineup to cope with the diversifying needs of users worldwide, and setting the scene for the age of expansion that soon followed in the 1970s.


            Identification of radio equipment and its purpose in Vietnam - History

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            Identification of radio equipment and its purpose in Vietnam - History

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            Lance Corporal Ralph H. McWilliams in Vietnam, November 1967, equipped with M1961 web gear, Ka-bar knife, and LRP rucksack.


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